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Information Security Management

Information Security Management

The wave of cyberattacks is increasing in number and complexity, with perpetrators taking advantage of the latest tools and technologies. The number of victims is growing exponentially, too, affecting a wide variety of organizations, from large corporations to small businesses, government agencies, and even individuals. These attacks are also getting more sophisticated by the day. A straightforward way to protect your network and information is mastering information security management, a core part of any comprehensive IT security strategy.

What is Information Security Management?

Information security management ensures that information assets are protected from loss, unauthorized access, misuse, and destruction. Information security management involves a systematic information security approach applied throughout an organization. This includes policies, procedures, and standards for safeguarding data; hiring qualified staff; establishing processes for detecting, reporting, responding to, and managing incidents involving information systems or when unauthorized users gain access to sensitive data, and maintaining a program that communicates information security expectations to employees.

Information security management is an ongoing process that begins with establishing policies and procedures but continues throughout the life cycle of an organization's information assets. The goal of information security management is not only to protect assets but also to help companies be more competitive in their markets by assisting them in understanding how their competitors are doing business.

Goal of ISM

Information security management aims to reduce the likelihood of a data breach or other security incident occurring by identifying vulnerabilities before attackers can exploit them. In addition, the aim is to prevent attackers from gaining access to sensitive data to steal money or information that could be used for illegal purposes.

Steps Involve in ISM

The steps involved in information security management are:

  • First, identify the potential threats to your business or organization.
  • Devise a plan to prevent and minimize these threats.
  • Ensure compliance with security policies and procedures that address these risks.
  • Implement monitoring systems to detect unauthorized access, use, and disclosure of information assets or activities that may adversely affect the confidentiality and integrity of information systems and data.
  • Develop and implement measures to protect information assets through physical, technical, and administrative actions by the appropriate provisions of relevant laws and regulations.

Why Should You Care About Information Security Management?

If your organization is not concerned with information security management, you must do it right.

Information security is a critical function of any business. Therefore, it is essential to understand what makes your organization values and how to protect it from external threats.

As a senior leader, you should care about information security management because:

  • It will help you understand your organization's risks and set goals for improving them over time.
  • It will help you identify areas where your organization is at risk and give you the tools to mitigate them.
  • It will help you build a culture of cybersecurity in your organization so that everyone understands how important it is to be vigilant about information security.

What are the Benefits of Information Security Management (ISM)?

Information Security Management (ISM) is a process that requires identifying, analyzing, and mitigating risks to organizations from unauthorized access to or acquisition of their information systems.

The benefits of Information Security Management (ISM) include:

  • Reduced risk of data breaches.
  • Improved customer confidence in the organization.
  • Enhanced reputation as an ethical business.
  • Increased profitability and profitability.
  • It helps to identify and manage risks effectively.
  • It improves the security of information assets by ensuring that it is stored. securely and protected from unauthorized access or disclosure.

Difference Between Information Security, Computer Security, and Information Assurance

Information security protects information assets from threats and vulnerabilities. The goal is to keep information assets safe from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, or modification. This means that your organization must have a comprehensive plan to protect your data from external threats and internal fraud/error.

Computer security refers to the protection of computers against external attacks. Computer attacks can come from human attackers or malicious software (malware) programs. Malware is a software developed by hackers and then distributed on the Internet for illegal purposes. Computer security aims to limit the damage caused by malware infections so that they do not impact productivity or compromise users' privacy.

Information assurance ensures the availability, integrity, and confidentiality of information and computer systems. Information assurance goals are to prevent and mitigate information-related risks, reduce impact when risks occur, and help ensure that business activities continue to be performed without interruption.


The threat of information security breaches is a growing concern for businesses and individuals alike. As technology advances, our information becomes more vulnerable, and we must take appropriate measures to protect ourselves from malicious threats. An excellent place to start is by educating yourself about the basics of Information Security Management and then adopting actions to protect your personal information.

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Characteristics of Cloud Computing

Characteristics of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a development model where hardware, software, and data are hosted at remote and often public facilities. The traditional computing model has been based on a client-server architecture where the servers were dedicated to processing client requests. Instead, the cloud enables users to access applications, databases, and storage by Internet connection, all via a Web browser and web-based interfaces.

Cloud computing is a hot topic and one that is just getting started. Unfortunately, it’s also one of the most misunderstood. When you hear the word "cloud," most people think of hosting providers, virtual servers, and software as a service (SaaS). The reality is that when we talk about cloud computing, there are many different characteristics. Let's read about those characteristics.

  1. On-Demand Self-Service

Cloud computing allows customers to provision and pays for computing resources as needed without upfront commitments. This is called on-demand self-service. The customer can use the cloud as much or as little as required at any time. Customers are not tied to a set amount of time or number of usage cycles.

  1. Ubiquitous Network Access

A cloud service provider has a network that provides ubiquitous access to customers' applications and data throughout their enterprises, regardless of where they are located and what device they use. A client application may be accessed from anywhere worldwide, provided it is accessible via a network connection. The network may be a private cloud or an external (public) cloud.

  1. Sustainability & Resilience

Cloud computing provides sustainability and resilience due to its elasticity, scalability, and cost-effectiveness. In addition, it allows enterprises to deploy resources on demand, thus reducing the time it takes for them to react when business needs change.

  1. Rapid Elasticity

One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the ability to quickly deploy servers and applications, either in a virtual environment or on physical hardware. This characteristic allows organizations to respond rapidly to market changes and customer demands without worrying about capital investment and maintenance. In addition, the ability to quickly move data from one location to another is also a significant benefit for businesses that need to scale up their operations.

  1. Resource Pooling

Resource pooling refers to allocating resources across multiple users, allowing each user access to as much technology as needed. As a result, resources are shared among all users instead of being allocated based on user status or usage levels. This reduces the cost per unit of IT infrastructure and makes it more accessible for all users at any time. In addition, resource pooling makes it easier for users who move between projects or departments because they do not have to worry about losing their current applications or data when they switch jobs or locations.

  1. Measured Service

Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimum management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model uses patterns to deliver an abstraction of virtualized hardware that allows developers to build applications without requiring a highly-specialized knowledge of the internal workings of a cloud service provider's hardware or software infrastructure.

  1. Pay-as-you-go model

Pay-as-you-go (PAYG) is an alternative payment scheme where users pay only for the actual resources they use or the time they use them. In the cloud computing environment, pay-as-you-go models allow users to pay only for their actual usage and not for any set amount of usage upfront. Thus in PAYG models, users are charged only for what they consume instead of being charged in advance for all services offered by the provider.

  1. Global Infrastructure

 Cloud computing is based on the concept of geographic distribution. Therefore, data centers provide the service in different locations worldwide. This ensures you have access to high-performance servers and storage, regardless of location. It also provides redundancy, which means that if one data center becomes unavailable, another can take over its responsibilities, thus ensuring that your services continue uninterrupted.

  1. Reliability and Availability

 The most important characteristic of cloud computing is its reliability and availability. Your applications are hosted by experts who monitor them 24/7 to ensure they run smoothly without any problems or disruptions. In addition, if you need support for any reason, someone is always available to help you resolve any issues.

  1. Security

Cloud computing provides vital security measures to help businesses keep their data safe. The cloud provider has access to all the necessary information, but only the user can access their information. In addition, there is no single point of failure, so if one part of the system fails, many others can take over. This means that even if a hacker gets into one part of the system and steals some data, they will not be able to find anything useful because it is deleted immediately and cannot be recovered.

  1. Privacy

Cloud computing offers businesses complete control over their data and its use. For example, companies can decide when and where employees or partners can access data and what information about customers is shared with external companies. Businesses also have complete control over who has access to their networks and systems so that no one else can see sensitive data without permission from the owner of that information.


Cloud computing is a radical shift that has brought about many changes. It has immense potential to change how we look at businesses and what makes them successful in the future. This innovation has brought many opportunities and innovations that have changed the way businesses get done. Progressive companies are gearing up with insights to use cloud computing better, while others are resting on their assets. It is high time to embrace the new technology-driven trends that the cloud offers and benefit from not being left behind.

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Productivity Management and Its Importance

Productivity Management and Its Importance


Table of Content

Why Does Productivity Matter?

What is productivity management?

Why is productivity management important?

What Are Some Effective Ways to Manage Productivity?

Productivity is Essential for Today's Companies


Why Does Productivity Matter?

The productivity of a project is the amount of work that can be done in a given period. The productivity of a project will vary depending on many factors. Still, one of the most important is the quality of the team. A good team will provide better results, which means their productivity increases. Productivity matters in any project because it's a key driver for success. If you don't produce enough value, you won't be able to provide a good return on your investment.

What is Productivity Management?

Productivity management is a strategic management process that helps an organization achieve its goals by reducing waste and increasing the efficiency of business operations. Productivity management focuses on all aspects of the business, including sales, service, marketing, and financial results. Productivity management aims to create the highest level of value for the customer while minimizing costs or any other negative impact on the organization's bottom line.

Productivity management can be applied to any business or organization, whether a small business or a large corporation. Many companies use productivity management as one of their top priorities because it positively impacts their bottom line.

Why is Productivity Management Important?

The ability to manage productivity is an essential part of business success.

Productivity measures the amount of output produced by a worker over a specific period. In simple terms, it is the amount of work done per unit of time.

There are many reasons why productivity management is essential:

  • It allows you to control costs.
  • It helps you make better decisions about how you spend your money.
  • It helps keep workloads down and staff happy.
  • Setting goals for each employee so that they know what to work towards.
  • Strategizing how to reach those goals.
  • Measuring how well each employee is doing toward those goals.
  • Maintaining consistent communication between all employees involved in the project or task.

What Are Some Effective Ways to Manage Productivity?

Productivity is the amount of work you get done in a day or week. The most effective way to manage productivity is by setting goals and keeping track of your progress toward those goals.

Here are some practical ways to manage productivity:

  • Set realistic goals

 Goals should be SMART (specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic, and time-bound). You must set your goals based on your current level and what you are willing to do to achieve them.

  • Track your progress

 Once you have set your goals and recorded them in a place where you will constantly see them (such as a calendar), make sure that you keep track of how well you are doing each week or month.

  • Take Advantage of Technology

Technology has become an integral part of our daily lives. It helps us stay connected and get things done faster. You can use technology to make managing your time easier by using app such as Google Calendar. This will help you keep track of the time you spend doing things and how much time it takes to complete them. For example, if you find that it takes 15 minutes to complete a task, to your calendar so they don't get forgotten about later on during the day when it would be too late to do anything about it!

  • Create a Schedule

Creating a schedule for yourself is essential to get things done on time. It will help you organize your life around important tasks and juggle all the other stuff in between them. Schedule everything from work-related tasks like meetings, lunches with clients, or even just random errands.

  • Set boundaries for yourself

When you have a lot of work, it can be easy to lose track of time. That's why it's important to set boundaries for yourself. If you know exactly when you will stop working on a project, you won't have any trouble staying focused until that time. Of course, you should also set these boundaries in advance so there are no surprises.

  • Turn off distracting notifications.

It's easy to get distracted by notifications while working on something important. If you don't want to miss any important messages or alerts, turn them off while working on something else and then turn them back on when it's time for that project again. This way, all distractions will be behind closed doors and out of sight so that nothing distracts from what needs doing at that moment (and vice versa).

Productivity is Essential for Today's Companies

The world has become where we need to be productive to survive. The faster we can be effective, the more time we will have for ourselves and our loved ones.

Productivity is essential for today's companies because it allows them to operate at a higher efficiency level. However, suppose you are not able to produce your products or services at a quick rate. In that case, your company might not be able to stay competitive in the marketplace.

Productivity is also important because it allows us to get ahead and meet our financial obligations on time. However, when you cannot produce as much as possible within a given period, it can cause many problems with your finances and other aspects of your life.

Takeaway: How to Improve Productivity

There are many ways to improve productivity. Here are a few tips:

  • Have a clear vision of what you want to achieve.
  • Do not let yourself get distracted by other things in the project.
  • Have a set of standards for what good looks like.
  • Reward yourself for small victories along the way.
  • Set deadlines and enforce them as necessary.


Productivity management is a broad term and can refer to several different things. However, the concept of "productivity" is simple to understand-it and deals with the quantity and quality of work output. That's not to say that it's easy to implement in the workplace. While it may seem like a simple issue on paper, getting employees to be productive at work can be far more complex than it looks. Nevertheless, here's hoping for a successful implementation for all!

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Why Organizations Require DevOps?

Why Organizations Require DevOps?

DevOps has been a widely leveraged term in the software development domain over the last few years. DevOps is defined as a technique where IT professionals and developers work closely to share code, knowledge, and procedures across organizational space. The main aim of DevOps is to enhance collaboration and communication between teams to accelerate project deliveries.

In addition, DevOps can be compared to Agile practice, where teams collaborate with the customer - enhancing communication and unity across all developmental areas.

How DevOps Works

DevOps depends on having a system that allows automated code transfer from development to production. This system comprises various tools that help automate processes - container platforms, Version Control Systems (VCS), and build servers.

The systems also help accelerate software development by automating the procedures that can be done manually.

DevOps Benefits

a. Top Quality Products

Collaboration between DevOps team members makes it seamless for developers to work hand in hand to determine issues and prevent them from creeping into DevOps developed version. As a result, this alliance leads to top-quality products and is less likely to have errors that might impact performances.

b. Minimized Development Time

DevOps systems can help accelerate the developmental process by allowing developers to focus on writing code than configuring DevOps developing environments. This leads to the spending of minimum waiting time for DevOps tools to configure before coding, thus, helping the team to become productive.

c. Easy Upgrades

Since DevOps infrastructure automates several activities involved in maintaining and upgrading DevOps systems, it becomes easier for organizations to update their DevOps pipelines. This avoids compatibility issues and ensures the systems run at top-notch performance throughout.

d. Easier Team Collaboration

DevOps systems are developed on ideas of sharing knowledge between DevOps teammates. By automating its development, creators spend more time collaborating and developing better products with are shorter turnaround time.


The benefits of DevOps make it a valuable asset for any organization seeking to enhance its software development process. By leveraging DevOps, businesses can see the benefits of efficiency, time, and money.

In short, DevOps tools work together to develop a seamless automated process that helps enhance the pace and quality of software development projects. They also improve collaboration between team members, making the whole process productive.

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Cost of PMI ACP Certification 2023

Cost of PMI ACP Certification 2023

PMI ACP accreditation is one of the most globally renowned certifications, where the average salary of a certified individual is $123,000 annually. However, to attain this credential, professionals must have a precise understanding of the PMI Exam. Hence, before jumping onto the exam schedule, it's significant to know the basics of PMI ACP certification – definition, cost & payment methods.

PMI ACP Certification: Explained

A. Definition

Agile is a progressive technique of software delivery to the customers rather than dropping it as a whole to test. This software version lets you leverage and understands the software better. Hence, PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (ACP) accreditation equips an individual with Agile fundamentals to perform with top-notch integrity.

B. Cost

The cost of PMI ACP Certification depends entirely on the person's type of membership with PMI. If you're a PMI member, they offer a discounted price for the credential. On the other hand, if you're a non-member of PMI, you have to pay the full fee to attain the certification.



PMI Member

Non-PMI Member


INR 25,196

INR 38,299

PMI ACP Exam Retake

INR 19,404

INR 30,506


C. Eligibility Criteria

Let us see the prerequisites of PMI ACP Certification put forward by PMI:

  • Secondary degree
  • 21 contact hours in Agile practice training
  • 12 months of general project experience within the last 5 years
  • 8 months of Agile project experience within the last 3 years

D. Gain and Maintain

The PMI ACP Certification exam has 120 MCQs to be completed in 3 hours. To maintain PMI ACP Certification, professionals must earn 30 PDUs in Agile topics every three years.

E. Crack PMI ACP Exam

Let's look at some tips to crack the PMI ACP exam easily and in one go.

  • Ensure you plan your study well and approach the certification exam like a project.
  • Keep track of what you've learned and missed in PMBOK and Agile practice guides to keep yourself updated.
  • Keep your study materials limited and strive to finish them before the exam
  • Keep solving the practice questions.


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Introduction to Google Analytics

Introduction to Google Analytics

Google Analytics is a free online tool that tracks website traffic and traffic sources, which can help you measure your marketing campaign's success.

It's a great way to see how visitors engage with your site — where they came from and what they do while there. You can also use it to identify problems with your site so you can fix them before they affect visitors' experience.

Google Analytics tracks all the information about your site's visitors, including:

  • Visitors' demographics: age, gender, and location
  • How long do they spend on your pages
  • How many times do they click through from search results or other websites to reach your site?
  • What pages do they view when they visit, including keywords used in their search query (this is called "keyword tracking")
  • How long it takes them to leave once they get there (called "exit intent")

Why Analytics is Important

Analytics is important for a website because it helps to understand its performance, which is essential for making changes to optimize performance and improve user experience. It also helps to understand how visitors use your site, which helps make decisions about where to allocate resources.

How Does Google Analytics Work

Google Analytics uses cookies to track website traffic. Cookies are small bits of information stored on your computer or mobile device by the web server that accesses your website. They contain non-personal information about how you interact with the website to help us improve the way we serve content and ads to you. The Google Analytics cookies collect pseudo-anonymous identifiers (i.e., something that is anonymous) that are stored on your device's hard drive so we can only read them. The Google Analytics cookies use a combination of JavaScript tracking code and cookies to identify and report on unique individuals and their behavior.

Types of Reports in Google Analytics

To understand the performance of the website, google analytics includes reports. These are:

Acquisition reports

This is a report about the traffic that has come to your website from other sources. As its name indicates, it's about who came to your site and why. You can use this report to see if any new visitors are coming to your website or if you have lost some existing visitors because they left the website or moved on to another site.

Monetization reports

These reports show how much money you made from advertising and how much you spent on ads. You can use this information to see what ads you should run to make more money and what kinds of ads don't work well since they might not generate enough revenue for you.

Engagement Reports

Engagement reports show how your audience is engaging with your content. This includes all forms of engagement, from clicks and page views to shares, comments, and more. You can use these reports to identify what content gets the most attention, what content performs well against competitors, and how you can improve your engagement metrics overall.

Demographics Reports

Demographics reports show you which demographics are most interested in your business. This can help you understand which areas of interest might be underserved by your company or website. It also allows you to target these people with specific ads and other marketing campaigns so that they know about your products and services before ever trying them out for themselves.

Advertising Reports

These reports show detailed data on your advertising performance. They include pages and clicks, cost per click, conversion rate, and more. Use these reports to help you optimize your advertising strategy and make decisions about your campaigns.

Technology Reports

These reports give information about what happens on your website when users access it. These reports include session duration (how long visitors spend on your site), bounce rate (the percentage of visitors who leave your site after visiting only once), average time on site (the number of time people spend browsing your site), page views per visit (how many people see at least one page on your location) and more.

Metrics in Google Analytics

Metrics are the key to making data-driven decisions. In Google Analytics, you can measure metrics like page views and time on page. Still, there are more advanced metrics that we use at the company to help us understand our business better. These metrics are –

Conversion Rate: The number of people who visit your website, complete a specific action, and purchase a product/service on your site.

Views: The total number of unique users who have viewed your website.

Traffic Sources: The volume of traffic each source provides to your website.

Event Tracking: A set of parameters that allows you to track specific events on your site, such as when someone views an article or purchases a product.

Sessions: how many times a person visited your website during a specified period (such as an hour)

Bounce rate: The percentage of users who leave your website before they complete their visit.

Acquisition: The acquisition metric is the number of users who have visited your site but did not convert into a lead.

Why Does the Company Use Google Analytics?

Google Analytics is used for a number of reasons. First, it gives your site owners an overview of how visitors interact with their website. This includes where they came from and what they did once they got on your site. If you have a page that has high traffic, you can see who the most popular pages are and determine which ones need more attention or improvement. You can also see how long people stay on each page, so you can ensure that all of your content is interesting enough to keep people coming back for more.

Google Analytics also offers reports on mobile analytics, which are helpful if you are trying to figure out how many people visit your website on their mobile devices.

Finally, it gives you information about how many users are dropping off at specific points on your site so that you can determine where they were lost and attempt to improve their experience.

Benefits of Google Analytics

Google Analytics is the most popular analytics platform in the world. It's free, easy to set up, and has many features.

Here are some of the benefits:

  • It can track visitors from all over the web, not just your website.
  • It offers custom reports for every aspect of your business (e.g., number of visitors by country or city)
  • You can see how much traffic you have coming from social media.
  • You can see which pages are the most popular.
  • You can see where people go on your website when they interact with it (e.g., click on one of the links)
  • Measure the performance of marketing campaigns (such as email marketing and e-commerce)
  • Analyze search trends and traffic sources (search engine optimization)
  • Access data in real-time (real-time bidding)


Although several tools are available for tracking your site's traffic and statistics, Google Analytics provides greater ease of use and access for free. If you aren't tracking your website's traffic and statistics now, it's well worth considering this tool.

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Search Engine Optimization

Search Engine Optimization

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the art and science of ranking your website higher in search engines. You know, the best result in the list that usually contains thousands of similar searches. It's a very competitive field, and it's essential to use the right tools to give you a competitive advantage.

Definition: SEO

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of maximizing the visibility and volume of your website in search engines like Google. For example, suppose a visitor searches for a product and is directed to your website. In that case, this is called a "natural search result."

Search engine ranking is important when calculating how well a website ranks in a search engine. The higher you rank, the more opportunities you have to get visitors to your site and retain them for extended periods.

SEO Cycle



Business Analysis

Business analysis determines how a product or service fits into the market and how customers will use it. This is essential for any company seeking to develop its online reputation. It allows them to understand what people are searching for online and how they want to find its following product.

Keyword Analysis

A keyword analysis can help businesses identify the most popular keywords in their industry. It can then craft advertising campaigns that appeal to those customers.

Web Position Analysis

Web position analysis determines how a website ranks in Google and other search engines, including Yahoo and Bing. This can be done through keyword research, content analysis, and site audits.

On-Page Optimization

This is the stage where you focus on improving your website's ranking by increasing your page authority and keyword rankings. In addition, you can use backlink building, article marketing, and other SEO strategies to get better rankings in search engines. The steps involved in on-page optimization are:




Server-side Optimization

Server-side optimization goes a long way in helping your website rank on search engines. In addition, it helps to improve the responsiveness of your website, resulting in a better user experience. The process of server-side optimization includes the following:

  • Scanning your website for broken links and other errors
  • Fixing any errors found in the scanning step
  • Redirecting old broken links to new ones
  • Optimizing images for faster loading speeds

Search Engine (Website Submission)

This is the most important step in the SEO cycle. You need to submit your website to search engines as soon as possible after its creation or launch date. You can use any of the many free submission services available, such as Google Webmaster Tools, Yahoo! Site Explorer or Bing Webmaster Tools. These tools help you identify issues with your site and fix them as quickly as possible before they become a problem for you or your visitors.

Off-Page Optimization

This is where you create links between your site and other relevant websites to improve its ranking in search engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo! etc. It also helps get natural links from other websites, which will boost your SEO rankings further due to Google being a real-time analyzer of data across the internet that uses algorithms based on human behavior patterns (or "algorithms"). It is also called Backlinking.


The reports are the heart of the SEO process. You can see at a glance the status of your website to the various Search Engine Optimization (SEO) factors and how you compare to your competitors.

The report section is broken down into three major areas:

  • Site Overview
  • Keyword Analysis & Reporting
  • Technical Analysis

Why SEO is Needed

SEO is the process of finding and creating content that is designed to draw people to your website. It can be a long, complicated process requiring much work and effort. But it can be challenging to know where or how to get started.

SEO is important because it helps search engines find your website. Once they find it, they see if there's anything on the site that would help them give you more traffic and make your site more visible in their database. If they find something valuable and relevant, they'll put it at the top of their search results page (SERPs).

So if you want people to visit your website, you need to make sure that when they search for something on Google, Bing, or Yahoo! they see your site first. They want to know what you have for sale or offer as an alternative because you will need other options to compete effectively.

Important Terms related to SEO

Keyword Density

Keyword density is the percentage of keywords in a particular piece of content. The higher the keyword density, the more competitive your page is. The lower it is, the less competitive it is.

Keyword proximity

Keyword proximity refers to how closely related two or more keywords are (in frequency). It's essential because it helps search engines understand which words in your content are most relevant to each other. Use different keywords from one another often in your content. You can improve your search engine rankings by ensuring they're close together.

Keyword stuffing

Keyword stuffing is when you add too many words that contribute little value to your content. Search engines penalize this practice because it makes your site look spammy and doesn't help users find what they're looking for.

Do- follow Links

A do-follow link is a link to a page with good-quality content and authority. This is because Google will consider your page high quality so that it will rank higher in search engine results than a page without such links. Do follow links are also known as organic or natural links.

No- follow Links

On the other hand, no-follow links do not pass PageRank or refer back to your website. This is because Google sees no reason to follow these links since they don't provide any value to its algorithm.

Domain Authority

Domain Authority is a metric that indicates the overall quality of a website. Domain Authority is determined by analyzing the number of backlinks pointing to a website and specifying how many links are pointing to it from authoritative domains.

Page Authority

Page Authority is a metric that reflects the quality of a page on your site. Page authority is determined by analyzing the number of links pointing to that specific page and determining how many links are from high-quality sites.

Regardless of your specific niche, SEO is a hugely important aspect of your website's success. It's the foundation on which all your other strategies will rest. Of course, numerous other techniques can help you increase traffic to your site, such as social media marketing. Still, none are as important as mastering SEO.

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Become an Information Security Analyst 2023

Become an Information Security Analyst 2023

With networked computing becoming a trend even in a small-scale company and the development of the internet and cloud solutions, accessing advanced data to solve business challenges has never been widespread.

As data systems are universal, data has become less secure, where more companies manage a colossal amount of data, making it an easier target for cybercriminals. Often smaller organizations need IT the experience to keep data safe. Over the last decade, more companies have dealt with high-profile data breaches.

As a result, the role of Information Security (IS) Analyst has advanced to a most sought-after position across industry verticals.

What is an IS Analyst?

An Information Security (IS) Analyst defends computer networks performed by private businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government organizations. However, there are a few domains where an IS Analyst can't find work relying on data security.

As ML and predictive modeling illustrate their investment returns, more enterprises need the skills of a competent IS Analyst. The sole responsibility of an Information Security Analyst is to develop scalable security apparatuses to address and prevent threats.

The job's criteria depend on the sector; however, an IS Analyst is often reserved in case of data breaches, hacking, or other crises based on tech asset security.

An analyst generates reports that IT admins and business professionals leverage to assess the practicality of their security systems. Depending on the Analyst's suggestions, organizations will modify security networks to ensure data is inaccessible to unauthorized people.

Developing and delivering educational courses is also a part of their work, as it's adequate to aid workforces in maintaining solid security practices.

Roles of Information Security Analysts

An IS Analyst is responsible for the following:

  • Maintain data encryption and firewalls to safeguard sensitive data.
  • Establish security standards
  • Investigate security breaches on their company's networks.
  • Ensure that senior IT staff is aware of security improvements
  • Help users with learning and installation of new security products
  • Staying updated on the latest advancements in IT security


Information Security Analysts: Job Prospects & Certification Requirement

According to BLS, IS Analyst job scope is projected to rise to 28% from 2016-2026, considerably more rapidly than other occupations' average growth. In addition, according to US News, IS Analyst is listed as the fourth best IT job in 2019, attributing to a wide variety of ventures looking for data security solutions.

According to Indeed, the average IS Analyst salary is $81,065 annually, which may increase as per expertise and knowledge.

An IS accreditation comprises a collection of credentials that set up foundational knowledge in different topics.

ICert Global helps people excel in the skills required for network security. Our security programs and certifications help participants to spot vulnerabilities, immediately respond to emergencies, and fend off attacks.

Some of the top-notch security certifications are as follows:

  • Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)
  • Cyber Security Expert
  • Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)
  • CompTIA Security+
  • Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)



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Introduction to Digital Marketing

Introduction to Digital Marketing

In the past, digital marketing was something that only large companies could afford to do. However, today this is changing, as thousands of small business owners are adopting digital marketing into their businesses. And with the power of social media, word-of-mouth advertising, and data collection, you can see how concerned small business owners should be about using these resources to reach their targeted customers and build a profitable brand.

What is Digital Marketing?

Digital marketing uses digital technology and other strategies to address an organization's business objectives. It is a strategic approach that incorporates all aspects of a business, including branding, retailing, direct marketing, public relations, and advertising.

Digital marketing encompasses all technologies that can be used to deliver content to achieve these goals. These include web design, search engine optimization (SEO), online advertising (search ads, display ads), email marketing/remarketing, affiliate marketing/referral programs, paid search, and mobile apps.

Why is Digital Marketing Important?

Digital marketing is the most important way to reach your customers. It's often called 'marketing in a box' because it provides everything you need to run your business online.

Digital marketing is essential for any business owner who wants to connect with their audience, drive traffic and increase sales. Digital marketing helps you sell more products or services by building trust with your target audience and building an audience of loyal customers who come back again and again.

Types of Digital Marketing

There are many types of digital marketing, but each class can be broken down into a few core elements. Each element is designed to accomplish a specific task in driving online traffic and leads to your website.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

SEO is optimizing your website for search engines like Google and Bing. Search engines use algorithms to determine which sites are most relevant to users based on their search terms, keywords, and other factors. The goal of SEO is to get your site listed as high up in the search results as possible.

Social Media Marketing (SMM)

Social media marketing involves using platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or LinkedIn to promote your brand or business. It's also known as social media advertising or SMO. Content sharing and engagement are two important factors in this marketing strategy because they allow you to build relationships with people who might become customers. In addition, social media platforms enable businesses to collaborate with their customers to create content that can be shared with others in their network and across the web.

Content marketing

 Content marketing is about producing valuable information for your audience relevant to their needs and interests. You can make this content yourself or hire writers specializing in content creation. The goal is to attract new audience members and build trust with existing ones through original, quality content available for free on websites like Medium or YouTube.


With e-commerce, you can sell products and services online. This includes shopping carts that allow consumers to buy online, websites that list products and services for sale, and sites where consumers can purchase items from third-party vendors (e.g., In addition to selling products and services, e-commerce companies may provide other value-added services such as shipping and returns.

Mobile Marketing

Mobile marketing is using portable devices to deliver digital content, including advertisements. Mobile marketing began as a way for advertisers to reach potential customers on their phones. Still, it has now evolved into a full-fledged marketing channel with an entire ecosystem of apps, content, and services designed to help marketers reach potential customers through mobile devices and applications.

Email marketing

Email marketing is one part of digital marketing where you get paid directly by the company or company owner. You promote your service or product through email campaigns like newsletters or blasts. You can send notifications about new products or services available at certain time intervals or when there is some special event in the industry related to your niche if you are an expert in that area or have expertise in that industry.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is a method of marketing that pays website owners and publishers based on the performance of their advertisements and sales. Affiliate marketers use special links called affiliate codes to identify themselves and the products they are promoting. When potential customers click on those links, they are taken to the merchant's site, where they can purchase if they wish.

Digital Marketing Benefits

There are many benefits to digital marketing, which include:

  • Leverage Search Engine Optimization (SEO) to attract traffic, leads, and sales.
  • Create content that people will want to read and share on social media.
  • Automate your email marketing campaigns so you can focus on growing your business.
  • Measure the effectiveness of your digital marketing campaigns by tracking ROI, conversions, and other KPIs.
  • It's easy to use.
  • You don't risk getting sued by a customer or consumer who feels you have misled them or made a false claim about your product or service.
  • You can target specific groups of people with digital marketing campaigns that will appeal to their interests, lifestyle, and even psychology (for example, they may be interested in products that are related to their interests).
  • Digital marketing is effective because it reaches people when they are using their mobile devices (or computers) on the go - which means that they are more likely to see it than other forms of advertising, such as TV or billboard ads would be!

Future of Digital Marketing

In the last few years, digital marketing has become a significant part of businesses' growth strategies. In fact, according to Statista, digital marketing expenditure is expected to reach $1 trillion by 2020 and $5 trillion by 2025.

Digital marketing is not just about online advertising anymore. Nowadays, it's also about social media marketing, email marketing, content marketing, and many other channels integrated into a single package.

The future of digital marketing is bright because there are so many different aspects that can be used to reach your target audience and generate leads for you or your business.

Your job as a digital marketer is to create new and innovative ways for people to interact with your brand and purchase your products or services. So you have to get creative and think of new ways to deliver value so that your customers don't feel like they are just another number on someone's list.

This introduction to digital marketing has opened a few doors for you. You might not know much about it now, but at least you know what goes into digital marketing and why it's there.

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Top Power BI Questions

Top Power BI Questions

  1. What is Power BI Desktop?

Power BI Desktop is a free, open-source tool for visualizing data. You can create dashboards and reports using the Power BI desktop app.

  1. What is DAX?

DAX stands for Data Analysis Expressions and is a standard query language for creating calculations in data analysis. It can be used with any dataset and is particularly useful for analytics queries. To create DAX queries, you need to use Excel as a working file and then use Power Query or Power Pivot to connect it with Power BI.

  1. What are Filters in Power BI?

Filters allow you to filter data from any field or table within a dataset to show only specific values or values based on other areas.

  1. What are the different views available in Power BI Desktop?

Power BI Desktop has two views:

Dashboard View. This is a simple way to view data inside a Power BI Desktop report. You can use this view to explore your data and make sense of it.

Report View. This is where most of your work will happen! Reports are interactive, allowing you to filter, sort, and analyze your data exactly how you want it using multiple dimensions and measures.

Model View. The user manages Complex Data in this view.

  1. What is row-level security?

Row-level security is a feature of Power BI that allows you to control who can see what data by specifying a user ID and report name. For example, you can use this feature to share only specific rows of data while hiding others from view.

  1. Where is data stored in Power BI?

Data are stored in Azure SQL Database and Azure Blob Storage.

  1. Name the critical component of Power BI.

The critical components are:

  • Power Map
  • Power Q&A
  • Power Pivot
  • Power Query
  • Power View
  1. What do you mean by the content pack?

The Content Pack is a collection of data that can be used to create visualizations, reports, and dashboards or to analyze data. It has been designed to help you work with large volumes of structured and unstructured data in Power BI. The Content Pack is not limited to SQL Server or Azure SQL Database. Still, it can include any structured or unstructured data.

  1. Define bi-directional cross-filtering in Power BI

Bidirectional cross-filtering can perform a filter on two different columns in one query.

  1. What is query folding in Power BI?

Query folding is a feature in Power BI that allows you to group your data by a single dimension or multiple sizes. This is similar to how you group data in SQL Server and other relational databases. Many people often refer to this as SQL-style reporting because it works similarly to how SQL works when querying tables and grouping rows together.

  1. What do you mean by grouping?

When we talk about grouping in Power BI, we mean creating reports with multiple columns related to each other based on their values or conditions.

  1. What are the significant differences between Power BI's visual, page, and report-level filters?

In Power BI, you can create filters for visual-level, page-level, and report-level data.

  • Visual-level filters are applied to the current view of your report. For example, use this filter if you want to filter by a specific measure in a report.
  • Page-level filters are applied to the current page of your report. For example, use this filter to filter on a specific dimension or measure on a page.
  • Report-level filters are applied to all reports in your dataset or dataset collection. For example, use this filter if you have multiple reports in your dataset and want them to be filtered at once.
  1. Explain responsive slicers in Power BI.

Responsive slicers are a new feature in Power BI that lets you present data in responsive formats, such as cards and tiles.

For example, if you have a dataset that shows the number of customers by region, you should show that data as a bar chart. But if your audience has different screen sizes, having smaller charts with more detail might be more beneficial. In addition, you can use responsive slicer controls to format your data visually.

  1. What are KPIs in Power BI?

KPIs (key performance indicators) are metrics that measure the success of your organization. KPIs can be used to track strategic initiatives and make informed decisions about allocating resources. The Power BI team has built powerful features around KPI creation, analysis, and reporting.

  1. Explain Power BI Designer.

Power BI Designer is a tool for creating and editing many types of KPIs. This tool can create basic or complex KPI tables, charts, maps, and dashboards.

  1. Different stages in the working of Power BI?
  • Data integration is the process of combining data from multiple sources into a single destination.
  • Data processing is the process of transforming raw data into meaningful information by applying specialized algorithms.
  • Data presentation is displaying and visualizing the data, usually in a way that enables the audience to understand it easily.
  1. Application of PowerBI
  • Power BI is a cloud service that lets you create interactive dashboards that help business users gain better insight into their data and make better decisions faster.
  • To collaborate on reports and documents with others.
  • To create visualizations that communicate complex information in an easy-to-understand way.
  1. What is the CALCULATE function in DAX?

The CALCULATE function in DAX allows you to calculate a sum, average, or count of values. It is typically used for calculations like calculating the total for a range or calculating the average values in a column.

  1. Different types of connections in Power BI

SQL Server Import

This mode allows you to import data from SQL Server. In this mode, you can select the data source and the name of your table. You also have the option to select all tables or individual tables as well.

Live connection

This is the most common mode used by Power BI users. In this mode, you can connect to your database directly through Azure or any other storage provider your organization may use. The data will then be pulled into Power BI and analyzed at scale, giving you a real-time visual representation of your data.

Direct query

A direct query is a potent tool that allows you to access any data source through an API call, making it possible to connect to third-party services such as Twitter or Facebook (if they support OAuth authentication). This gives you free access to third-party databases and other services that do not have an open API available yet.

  1. What is GetData?

GetData is a new feature in Power BI that allows you to get data from any source and bring it into your dashboard. It's like "scraping" the web for information - except instead of putting the data into Excel spreadsheets or text files, we're putting it into Power BI!

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Trends to Look Forward in Business Agility 2023

Trends to Look Forward in Business Agility 2023

Business Agility has taken a whole new round for organizations amid the pandemic forcing businesses to simplify development operations. As a result, enterprises seek to become dependent on Agile-based project management techniques to maintain their ventures' adaptability.

The Agile principle focuses on streamlining challenging operational procedures, enabling project professionals to deliver projects in operational phases, where modifications are made more quickly.

Agile allows project teams to utilize solutions and determine issues in the development phase, focusing on customer requirements. First, let us see how trends affect organizations the most.

Scaled Agile & Scrum Techniques

The Scrum development technique accredits project professionals to proficiently coordinate the activities of cross-functional teams and generate working code at the end of each sprint. Organizations these days are leaping onto scaling their Scrum activities to offer more excellent value and enhanced partnership.

According to a recent survey, the most popular framework, SAFe, is rated as the top-scaled agile technique. Leading SAFe practices are the most comprehensive for massive Agile projects and support a successful change of companies into Lean-Agile companies.

SAFe Scrum Masters are highly cherished as they're trained to plan and perform projects in the context of the business, not just individual sprints.

Business Agility and Design Thinking

The design thinking technique exposes customer requirements on a human level by creating solid user empathy and experimenting in stages to make a design right. Design thinking and agile have a lot in common. For instance, a project team can build additional time into sprint activities to better understand customer facts and enhance their overall satisfaction.

Taking the time upfront to establish user empathy and getting design feedback will help streamline modeling and testing, followed by visualizing a solution that can guide the team on the right path.

Within the Agile space, organizations should ponder staggered sprints that include user feedback loops, empathy, and ideation of the Agile process.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Supporting Agile

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence are the greatest booms in data analysis in the project and development environments. For instance, they offer real-time data and swift analytical capabilities to provide precise predictions of when project stages will be complete. That's significant when projects get close to the ending stage, and the eyes of various executive constituents are fixed on the schedules.

Additional benefits offered to Agile by ML and AI are:

  • We offer accurate insights and transparent procedures for developing and testing programming code.
  • Reviewing code with better precision to determine and eradicate bugs.
  • Merging with innovative techs such as RPA, Quantum Computing, IoT devices, and intelligent techs to swift development time and get products to market faster.



Project management professionals leverage their resources to maintain their teams for optimum running, including Agile Scrums that scale to business criteria, design thinking techniques to merge customer requirements early on the lifecycle, and cutting-edge techs like ML and AI to fasten testing and market time.

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Data Science Interview Questions 2023

Data Science Interview Questions 2023


  1. What is NumPy?

NumPy is a Python library for fast numerical computations. It provides high-performance, reliable, and scalable array functions. NumPy arrays can be used as an alternative to lists in many situations.

  1. What is the advantage of NumPy arrays over lists?

The advantage of using NumPy over lists is that they use less memory and are faster than lists.

They support multi-dimensional arrays, unlike lists which only help one-dimensional arrays.

They can be sliced or reshaped using the standard Python expression syntax for slicing and reshaping. In contrast, slices on lists must be done with special operators such as lambda or list comprehensions.

  1. Differentiate between univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis.

A univariate analysis is a data set that contains only one variable. The data set can be categorical or numerical.

The bivariate analysis combines two variables into one large dataset that allows you to make detailed comparisons between them (e.g., the difference in the mean response for each treatment group across all participants).

In multivariate analysis, there can be many more variables than in either univariate or bivariate analysis (usually, there is at least one variable per factor). The primary purpose of using multiple variables is to increase the accuracy of our statement about what we believe to be true about our dataset.

  1. What is the difference between the use of iloc and loc?

The difference between the use of iloc and loc is that iloc returns a row object that is a list of integer values. In contrast, loc returns a row object that has one column. In addition, the row object returned by iloc has a position set to 0, which means it starts at index 0. On the other hand, the row object returned by loc has no starting index, so there are no integers in the first column (the one containing the values).

  1. What is the difference between the Pandas series and Pandas Dataframe?

Pandas Dataframe is a data storage format for tabular data, which can be efficiently stored in memory. The Pandas library provides a high-level interface to manipulate and analyze tabular data. At the same time, the underlying data structure is stored in a data frame.

   df = pd.DataFrame()

Pandas Series, On the other hand, Pandas Series is a multi-dimensional array that can store many different types of objects such as arrays, matrices, and lists. A pandas series is one dimensional with N rows and M columns where N can be any positive integer and M can be any positive integer or an empty list ([]). In other words, it is just like a list but without indexing.

s = pd.Series ()

  1. What are the ACID properties in SQL?

Atomicity: A transaction is defined as a set of operations that must be carried out without any partial effects or side effects. It means there should only be data updated in the database after the transaction has been committed.

Consistency: The database should be consistent at all times, i.e., all updates to the data must be visible to other users and processes.

Isolation: Each transaction in a database is isolated from other transactions so that they do not touch each other's data while running concurrently.

Durability: Each transaction should leave the database in a consistent state after its completion unless explicitly told otherwise by its owner.

  1. Difference between DDL and DML


DDL stands for Data Definition Language, while DML stands for Data Manipulation Language. The main difference between these two languages is that the first one is used to define the data. In contrast, the second one is used to manipulate it. In other words, DDL is used to create tables, whereas DML is used to modify existing records in a table.



  1. What are Constraints?

SQL constraints are used to limit the type of data that can go into a table, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the data in the table. Constraints can be either column-level or table-level. Column-level constraints apply to a single column, while table-level constraints apply to the whole table.

  1. Difference between Join and Union

Join combines two different tables, each of which has a select list containing a single column. This can be done by using the join() function. It returns a view that combines all of the rows from both tables.

Union is used to combine multiple columns from a single table into one row. For example, the union() function does this by taking all of the selected columns from the first table and combining them into one row in the second table.

  1. What are Nested Triggers?

Nested Triggers are a feature of SQL Server that allows you to create a trigger that runs when the same statement is fired more than once. This can be useful in situations where you want to modify data based on an event but need only to process one row at a time.

  1. What is a Confusion Matrix?

The Confusion Matrix is a table that summarizes prediction results. It is used to describe the performance of a classification model. The Confusion Matrix is an n*n matrix that evaluates how well an algorithm predicts certain dataset features.

  1. What is the difference between long-format data and wide-format data?

A wide format is a data structure that allows for storing much more information than a long format. The main difference between the two is that wide format uses more bytes to keep the same amount of data as long format. This can make it harder to move around since you will be wasting more space on your hard drive or in memory if you use a wide format.

Long formats are generally used when you want to save space and speed up your computer, but wide formats are used when storing more data in your computer's memory or hard drive.

  1. Why is Python used for Data Cleaning in DS?

Python is used for Data Cleaning in data science because it can perform some of the essential cleaning and transformation operations without additional dependencies.

Python has excellent support for Pandas and NumPy library - a set of mathematical and statistical routines used for data manipulation and analysis. The extensive list of libraries available for Python also helps to achieve quick results when needed.

  1. What is a normal distribution?

The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution that can be used to model various random variables. It is the most commonly used probability distribution and the most important in statistics, economics, and finance.

The normal distribution is a particular case of the Gaussian distribution: it has the same mean and variance, but the variance is twice as significant. The normal distribution functions as a bell curve when plotted along one axis and has an area under it equal to 1.

  1. What is logistic regression?

Logistic regression is a statistical technique to find the best-fitting model for a given set of observed data. For example, it can predict the probability of an event, such as whether a customer will buy your product.

The main idea behind logistic regression is to find the best-fitting model for your dataset, determining how many variables are needed to describe your data. The model you choose will depend on your dataset's complexity and how complex it needs to be for you to make reliable predictions.

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Introduction to Cloud Computing

Introduction to Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a web-based, on-demand resource that allows people and organizations to share information and data. Cloud computing enables you to access applications, software, and data via the Internet from anywhere with an Internet connection. You can also use it to store your files online. The cloud offers many benefits over traditional on-premises solutions, such as scalability, flexibility, and security.

The cloud can be used for storing company data and applications, but it can be used for more than just storing data. For example, you can also use the cloud to host websites or deliver online services.

Two primary users of the cloud are:

End User: The end user is typically an individual or group of individuals who use computing resources such as processing power, memory, and storage.

Business management user: Business management users ensure that the cloud infrastructure operates at optimal performance levels to meet business requirements.

The three major cloud providers are:

  • Google Cloud Platform
  • Microsoft Azure
  • Amazon Web Service (AWS)

Differences between on-premises computing and cloud computing

  • On-premises refers to a physical location where the server hardware is located. In contrast, cloud computing refers to using a virtual machine or another hosted environment on a server or other device with access to computing resources.
  • On-premises systems have their hardware and software infrastructure, whereas cloud systems rely on remote access via the Internet.
  • On-premise users bear the cost of hardware and operating system, whereas, in cloud computing, users have to pay a subscription fee for hardware and operating system access.
  • In on-premises, any failure means loss of the actual data. In contrast, in cloud computing, data are stored in the cloud, so if a failure occurs, there is still a copy of the data in the cloud.

Main Components of Cloud Platform

In the world of cloud computing, there are three main components: data center, Internet, and virtualization technology. These three technologies are what make up a cloud platform.

The data center is where servers and storage devices are stored.

The Internet is where applications run on those servers and storage devices.

Virtualization technology allows various software programs to run on top of those servers and storage devices.

Cloud Deployment Models

Cloud deployment models provide a way to separate a cloud computing environment's physical and virtual aspects. Three types of deployment models are:

Public Cloud

A public cloud is one where you can get your data, applications, and services from a provider like Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, or Google Cloud Platform. A public cloud provides access to a shared pool of virtualized resources across multiple servers. The goal is to make it easier for you to use these resources as if they were in your own data center.


  • You can access your data from anywhere with an internet connection without worrying about storage capacity, as the vendor already provides it.
  • There are no limits on bandwidth usage or the number of users accessing the same application at any given time. This means you will have more control over your resources than if you were running your server farm or cloud infrastructure.
  • The pricing plans offered by public clouds are much cheaper than those provided by private cloud providers because there are fewer costs involved in maintaining such infrastructure and providing services to customers.


  • The security of your data is often better than if you had your hardware. If you have sensitive data or mission-critical applications, keep them in-house.
  • You must pay for the service unless you host your hardware in-house.
  • Public clouds don't have local storage for your applications. That means you have to move all of your data into the cloud before you can use it.

Private Cloud

A private cloud is one that an organization manages. It's not shared with anyone else, and it's often used for mission-critical tasks such as running large databases or complex applications.


  • Private clouds offer security and flexibility that's not possible with public cloud infrastructure, which is typically owned and managed by a third-party provider.
  • The use of a private cloud environment enables the user to be in complete control over the data, applications, and services that they use. This gives them complete flexibility and freedom to make changes that are not possible in other environments.
  • Private clouds allow users to test new operating systems, applications, and services without worrying about downtime or impact on their production environment.


  • Private clouds are often more expensive than public clouds. They require more infrastructure, including servers, storage, and networking equipment. They may be more challenging to scale up or down than public clouds.
  • Private clouds are that they provide a different level of scalability than the public cloud does. For example, suppose you have 100 users, and only 5% of them need extra resources in their virtual machines at any time. In that case, it makes sense to use a public cloud instead of a private one.

Hybrid Cloud

A hybrid cloud is between public and private clouds, where the services are hosted on multiple clouds. Organizations can manage the cloud infrastructure with different objectives, such as control, cost reduction, and security. A hybrid cloud offers the benefits of both public and private clouds at the same time.


  • It enables organizations to manage IT infrastructure more efficiently, reduce costs and maximize resources.
  • It enables organizations to leverage existing hardware, software, and networking equipment investments to deliver their applications more quickly and cost-effectively.
  • It allows organizations to become more agile and responsive by enabling them to deploy applications without waiting for new infrastructure or software upgrades.


  • A hybrid cloud is that it requires more management effort than using a single cloud provider. When you have multiple clouds and applications, you need to manage them individually.
  • If one application becomes unavailable, other applications can also have problems.

Cloud Service Models

Cloud Services are mainly of three types:

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

This is the most common model for hosting on the cloud. The provider will provide you with all the hardware, software, and support you need to run your application. In this model, you only pay for what you use. This is ideal for startups that need more capital to invest in their infrastructure. Many popular applications are hosted this way, including Salesforce, Google Apps, and Dropbox.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

In this model, you get access to an application but not the underlying infrastructure required to run it. SaaS apps can be hosted on dedicated servers or virtual machines (VMs). Famous examples include Slack, Trello, and GitHub Enterprise.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

In this model, you get access to an application that runs on top of an infrastructure provided by the provider (e.g., AWS). Famous examples include Windows Azure and AWS Elastic Beanstalk.

Benefits of Cloud Computing

Reduced Capital Expenditures

Businesses can reduce capital expenditures by providing services in-house or through third-party providers. They can also use cloud computing to expand their existing IT infrastructure without investing in new hardware or software.

Increased Flexibility

Cloud computing enables businesses to maintain their current IT infrastructure while expanding their operations with minimal effort. This means they can use new technologies without reworking existing systems or adopting them altogether.

Improved Security and Compliance

Cloud computing offers companies improved security and compliance features than on-premise solutions such as virtual machines or dedicated servers. The virtualization layer separates different data types into separate environments, making it easier for organizations to monitor and manage multiple domains simultaneously without compromising security or operational integrity.


Cloud is a convenient way to store and access files over the Internet. It enables companies to expand globally, giving them more options for increasing their business.

Data Storage

Customers can choose the amount of storage they need and pay only for what they use.


Cloud computing is the new wave in technology. With the three layers of SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS, developers and businesses can find a setup that works best for them based on their needs.

Through its rise to popularity, cloud computing has helped many startups get off the ground, big corporations save money on IT infrastructure, and it has driven many fields toward greater technological integration. It's not going anywhere anytime soon; it's growing fast.

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Cloud Computing Terminologies

Cloud Computing Terminologies

When you work in cloud computing, it's easy to forget the vocabulary you need to know. It's also easy to forget which terminology is generic and which ones should be reserved for specific services. This can lead to confusion and frustration, the hallmarks of poor communication within a team or company. So let's get familiar with these terms.

  1. AWS

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Inc. It provides on-demand cloud computing services for developers and enterprises.

  1. Azure

Microsoft Azure is a cloud platform developed by Microsoft. It provides infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and Software as a service (SaaS).

  1. Big Data

Big Data refers to an extremely large amount of data that needs to be analyzed quickly to gain insights into how it affects business operations, customer behavior, and market trends.

  1. Cloud Provider

A cloud provider is a company that provides services to other companies through the Internet. These providers make their clients' IT infrastructure available securely and reliably via the Internet. In addition, the provider provides software, hardware, and connectivity to its clients.

  1. Google Cloud Platform

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) is a cloud computing platform from Google, Inc., offering infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), application development platform, and enterprise software as a service (SaaS). It provides computing power, storage, databases, and other components for building applications across many industries.

  1. Data Migration

Data migration refers to moving data from one location to another. It is a critical step in cloud computing, especially for enterprises storing data in different locations.

  1. IaaS

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a cloud computing service that allows users to rent virtualized computing resources over the Internet. It is one of the most common types of cloud computing, where users access applications and data stored in servers hosted by third-party providers.

  1. PaaS

Platform as a Service (PaaS), is an application development platform that provides its users with access to a wide range of software design and development tools, such as databases, web servers, server administration tools, and so on.

  1. SaaS

SaaS (Software as a Service) is a cloud computing model that provides on-demand Software licensing and access to application software over the Internet. It's a perfect fit for companies that want to develop their applications but need help to create or maintain their infrastructure.

  1. User Interface

User interface refers to how a cloud application is designed and used by customers. It also refers to the tools for end users to interact with the system, such as dashboards and reports.

  1. Private Cloud

A private cloud is a cloud-based infrastructure that resides on a single company's premises, often in a data center or colocation facility but sometimes in an office setting. An organization's own IT team uses it to manage its workloads, applications, and data. Private clouds are often designed for specific applications such as backup and disaster recovery or specialized workloads such as healthcare or finance.

  1. Public Cloud

A public cloud is a type of cloud computing where resources are accessible over the Internet by anyone with an Internet connection and basic software skills. Public clouds are managed by third parties such as Amazon Web Services (AWS),, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). These cloud providers provide computing resources for companies without having to build and maintain their data centers.

  1. Pay-As-You-Go

Pay-As-You-Go is where users pay only for what they use instead of being billed based on server usage. This is designed to encourage greater cloud service use by making it cheaper than traditional server options.

  1. On-Premise

The on-premises cloud is a private cloud consisting of hardware and Software owned by an organization. The cloud you can use to host your applications and services is on-premise. On-premise clouds are often used by companies that want to use their own internal IT resources to control the operating system, updates, applications, and other components.

  1. External Cloud

The external cloud hosts data and applications in a public cloud or third-party hosting services, such as IBM Cloud or Amazon Web Services (AWS). External clouds are typically managed by third parties who charge for their services and offer more choices than on-premises clouds. For example, these providers may provide additional features such as storage capacity or extra security measures, making them more attractive than traditional on-premises solutions.

  1. Internal Cloud

An internal cloud is simply a group of servers that are connected so that they can share information. This can be accomplished with any hardware or software solution. Still, most companies choose to go with an internal cloud because it allows them to save money on equipment costs by sharing resources across multiple locations instead of buying expensive new equipment for each location where they need it.

  1. Hybrid Cloud

A hybrid cloud is one where both private and public clouds exist simultaneously; this is often referred to as a "private-public" hybrid cloud due to its unique nature! Hybrid clouds allow businesses to take advantage of all aspects.

  1. Cloud storage

Cloud storage is a service that gives users access to data stored in the cloud. Examples include Dropbox and Google Drive.

  1. Middleware

 Middleware refers to Software that sits between the application and database layers in a software stack. Examples include Oracle's database management system and Microsoft SQL Server.

  1. Elasticity

Elasticity refers to the ability of a cloud service to grow and shrink in size at any time. This is desirable as it allows you to quickly scale up or down your infrastructure when demand increases or decreases.

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Strengthen Your Job Application with Project Management Certification

Strengthen Your Job Application with Project Management Certification

Today, Project Management is the most demanding professional accreditation, guaranteeing personal and professional achievements. As a result, we have often seen vacancy adverts for Project Management, where recruiters mention Project Management Certification as mandatory or preferred.

Over a decade, Project Management credentials have achieved global acceptance, with several companies recruiting candidates with certifications or pursuing the same.

Some of the popular Project Management Accreditations offering handsome remunerations are:

  • Project Management Professional (PMP)
  • Prince2
  • Managing Successful Programmes (MSP)
  • Risk Management Professional (RMP)
  • PgMP
  • CAPM


Software Estimation Certification & Business Analysis (BA) Certification is also significant credential in Project Management.

Irrespective of large/small-scale companies, skilled and trained Project Management certification holders are in great demand. A globally-renowned credential highlights that a person fulfills the needs of being a great project manager. However, let's get the point clear: these certifications aren't only for project managers but for those associated with a project at any time.

Now, what counts is competency, and the days when someone got promoted to a project manager position for being loyal for years have long gone. What does an organization look for in a person for project manager position?

  • Are you capable enough to take project charge?
  • What are your necessary qualifications?
  • Can you make use of all your given resources efficiently?


Let’s looks at some benefits of Project Management Certifications.

  1. Adds value to your resume
  2. Develops international recognition
  3. Increase customer satisfaction
  4. Successful completion of projects
  5. Handsome remunerations
  6. Validates your skills, knowledge and potential in project execution
  7. Client preferences


Here, we come to the conclusion that to have a distinct position in a competitive world, individuals must remain marketable. Project Management credentials act as a significant barrier in this regard. Being professionally certified after a particular age might be daunting; however, gaining an outstanding balance in your work career is always possible.

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What Is Cryptography?

What Is Cryptography?

Do you know what cryptography is? Cryptography is the art of keeping secrets. It has its uses in protecting data and ensuring only trusted people have access. One of the most important topics for every network is cryptography. What does cryptography do, how does it work, and why is it necessary for security? This article will answer all these questions and more.

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the science of protecting data by ensuring privacy and confidentiality. It's a method of securing data that ensures that only authorized parties can decrypt and read it.

Cryptography can be used to encrypt data, so only the sender and receiver can access it. Cryptography can also be used to verify the identity of an entity when communicating with them.

For example, some websites require users to enter personal information such as their name, email address, and bank account number before being granted access to their accounts. Cryptography then encrypts this information and sends it back to the website's servers, decrypted using a key only the site administrator can access. This prevents hackers from accessing the user's data without permission from their email provider or banking institution.

Importance of Cryptography

Cryptography is the science of making information secrets. It is used in many applications, including electronic commerce and computer security. The current focus of cryptography research is on designing secure algorithms against possible future attacks.

Cryptography is so important today because it provides an extra layer of protection against hackers who want to steal our personal information from our computers or other devices connected online, such as laptops or tablets. It also allows us to communicate securely.

Cryptography can be used for a variety of purposes:

Authentication: Verifying that the sender of a message is authorized to send it.

Confidentiality: Protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access or misuse by third parties.

Data integrity: Ensuring that messages have been created without modification by an attacker or "man-in-the-middle" (MitM) attacker, who might otherwise try to change or add notes in transit.

Data origin authentication: Assuring that at least one party has originated a message, even if there is no assurance about whether it was altered in transit.

Key Terms in Cryptography

Key: A secret string of characters used to identify and verify a person or thing. A key is typically used to encrypt or decrypt messages or to authenticate communication.

Encryption: The process of converting information from a known plaintext form into an obscure coded form using an encryption algorithm.

Decryption: The process of transforming coded information into its original plaintext form using an appropriate decryption algorithm.

Authentication: The act of verifying the identity of a communication partner by determining that the sender and receiver are who they claim to be.

Message Authentication Code (MAC): A type of digital signature that uses a secret key to verify the origin of a message.

Key Exchange: Two parties exchange public keys, which are then used to encrypt messages.

Message Authentication: Verification of an electronic message's origin and integrity. Usually performed using a secret key, but may also use other methods such as digital signatures or hash functions.

Ciphertext: the result of encryption after an algorithm encrypts it. It can be decrypted with the same algorithm.

Symmetric Key Encryption: A symmetric key encryption scheme uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt the data. This differs from asymmetric key encryption, which uses two keys to encrypt and decrypt the data.

Asymmetric Key Encryption: Asymmetric key encryption uses two different keys (also called public and private keys) for encrypting and decrypting data. The public key can be shared widely with others and used to encrypt information, while the private key must be kept secret by its owner.

Cryptographic Hash Function: Cryptographic hash functions are one-way functions that take an arbitrary-length string as input and produce a fixed-length string as output. These hashes are often used to validate digital signatures and provide integrity services. Still, they can also be used to create pseudorandom numbers that can be used for a variety of other purposes.

Public key and Private Key in Cryptography

Public and private keys are used in cryptography, which refers to the pair of numbers that uniquely identify a given public key and its corresponding private key. The public key is published and made available to anyone, while its owner keeps the private key secret.

The public key can be shared with anyone who needs to encrypt a message to be sent to you, while the private key is known only to you. When you want to send someone else your message, you use their public address; when they want to send you theirs, they use your address. This way, both parties control messages sent back and forth between them.

A private key is kept secret, while a public key is shared with many people. The idea behind this scheme is that if someone wants to send an encrypted message to you, they will first type your public address into their computer and then type in their private address (which corresponds with their secret). Then, they will send it along with the message. When you receive the message and want to read it, you must type in your secret before decrypting it with your private key.


Learning about cryptography is becoming increasingly vital, especially with the growing focus on digital security and privacy. More people are beginning to appreciate how cryptography is used to protect their private information and are taking steps to learn more. Information is key to staying secure and safe in today's digital world. So the more you know, the better off you'll be.

This guide is for you if you're looking for cryptography but unsure where to start. With a bit of practice and practice, you can be well on your way to mastering the art of cryptography in no time.

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Certified Scrum Master Certification Benefits 2023

Certified Scrum Master Certification Benefits 2023

The Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) is a beginner’s certification to offer new Scrum enthusiasts an idea of project management techniques. The credential is a globally renowned course provided by the prestigious Scrum Alliance. This program is offered to individuals who prove their skills in Scrum techniques, principles, and terminologies in the CSM test.

Certified Scrum Master Certification: Explain

A Scrum Master credential pinpoints your competency in the principles of Scrum Project management. Scrum Masters are project managers who leverage Scrum as their project management practice.

People who achieve CSM credential shows tangible proof to the recruiter that they possess the accurate skills and training for the job. Moreover, accreditation is an excellent source, regardless of your chosen field.

When it comes to Scrum Masters, part of your credential procedure is achieving the knowledge required for the position. Scrum teams need leaders; else, the whole practice is a waste of energy and time.

In addition, Scrum Master is the most sought-after career today, making recruiters choose candidates with CSM certification.

Roles of Scrum Masters

In general, the roles of a Scrum Master include the following:

  1. Eradicate organizational challenges, remove outdated procedures, and train new Scrum leaders
  2. Schedule Scrum meetings more efficiently, aiding team members to focus on the concept driving Scrum.
  3. Resolve problems that stand in the way of project progress.
  4. Leverages daily challenges as a learning technique for the team to help them improve significantly.
  5. Helps team members to upskill self-organizing skills.


Benefits of CSM Certification

CSM credentials help you stand out, showcasing your leadership skills far beyond what a typical project manager could offer. 

A significant benefit of a CSM credential is that it proves your potential to organizations looking for Scrum Masters. In addition, there's a drastic increase in demands for Scrum Masters as every team needs a committed person to perform different Agile projects.

Some benefits of CSM certification are:

  • If you're a Scrum professional with prior experience, a credential in Scrum expands your knowledge and helps you overcome hardships. It's an added benefit when you manage massive cross-functional teams leveraging the same framework.
  • Being a CSM professional can encourage and lead your teammates. You will direct them and help the team work efficiently. The CSM certification displays your potential to recruiters, thus having the edge over your counterparts.
  • Becoming a CSM can drastically expand your career opportunities. This credential will make you more relevant in your field - leading to handsome remuneration compared to your counterparts. It also equips you with the accurate skills required to fulfill the enterprise's objectives.


The Certified Scrum Master Exam

Certified Scrum Master individuals must undergo CSM training by CST trainers and will have to CST trainers and will have to take and pass an online test after the training to get certified. Like Agile and Scrum, credential enables experts to improve their excellence in agile and Scrum techniques and gives them a chance to be a member of the Scrum Alliance for two years.

CSM exam syllabus includes:

  • Scrum overview
  • Scrum project overview
  • The Scrum teams
  • Product backlog
  • The product owner
  • Releases
  • Sprints
  • The Scrum Master
  • Enterprise transformation


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3 Ways Big Data Influences Company Decision-making

3 Ways Big Data Influences Company Decision-making

According to the latest research, we develop over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data every day. These days, companies have access to myriad data sources gathered from customer touchpoints like social media pages, documents, websites, archives, and more.

However, more than just collecting data is needed to develop a positive effect on your venture. First, you need to determine and change the collated data into segments of value-added data.

Let's discuss three ways companies use Big Data to drive crucial business decisions and improve their enterprise performance.

Improve Operational Efficiency

Most organizations use data to automate workflows, optimize selling techniques, and improve their overall business efficiency.

For instance, Elon Musk's Tesla vehicles are incorporated with sensors that gather data and send it to the core servers for analysis. This aids the enterprise in enhancing its car performance. The firm also informs individual car owners regarding priority repair.

Another beneficial aspect of Big Data is Tesla's autopilot technique. Tesla records more miles/day than the total miles the Google autonomous car program recorded. It has also generated roadmaps for autonomous vehicles by assembling all the data into the cloud.

These roadmaps are proven to be 100x more precise than conventional GPS. In addition, the improved autopilot software helps match your car's speed to traffic, direct lane changes, and self-parking.

No Additional Investment, Maximum Capacity

Have you ever wondered about an increased customer base without the need for additional resources/investment?

A telecommunication firm - Sprint, leveraged Big Data analytics to minimize network fallacies, enhance customer experience, and optimize resources by analyzing real-time data. This has helped the enterprise to achieve a 90% increase in its delivery rate.

Real-time Data: Enhance Customer Engagement & Retention

One of the most crucial domains of any sector is customer service, where enterprises must deliver metrics. Organizations leverage real-time data to provide individual personalized services to their customers.

The US retail company - Kroger leverage Big Data to offer personalized loyalty programs to its users. The enterprise uses the collected data to generate meaningful insights that help the brand to improve profitability and customer satisfaction.

Kroger claims that 95% of its sales rely on customer loyalty and has added 60% redemption rates and around $12Bn incremental revenue. This has helped the firm stay profitable even during a worldwide recession.

Why Prepare for Big Data Career?

Today, most sectors are enhanced with the application of Big Data. Likewise, every career domain is drastically improved when the potential to gather and analyze Big Data is added to an ongoing scenario.

Let's see why you must enroll in Big Data Analytics to expand your professional background.


  1. The first and foremost benefit of Big Data Analytics is its attractive salary pack, which is higher than its IT counterparts. According to a global recruitment company - Randstad, the rate of Big Data experts is 50% more than that of other IT professionals in India. Likewise, ITjobswatch highlights a 14% increase in average salary for Big Data consultants in the UK in 2016.
  2. There has been an increase in job opportunities in the Big Data management and analytics field over the last five years. A prediction report from the McKinsey Global Institute states a shortage of over 1.5Mn analysts in the US by the end of 2018.
  3. Various job titles like Big Data Engineer and Metrics & Analytics Specialist are some of the most demanding careers in the modern job market.


As more companies leap onto data-driven decision-making techniques, they must adopt learning and invest in their workforces to achieve value-added accreditations. Organizations must take the step to sponsor employees for significant training courses on analytical tools and techniques that will provide their teams with the skills needed to use data for informed decision-making.

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Scrum Master Role and Responsibilities

Scrum Master Role and Responsibilities

Scrum Master is a multifaceted role. In fact, there are many different ways to define what it means to be a Scrum Master. However, regardless of how you define the role and responsibilities, everyone who plays a part in creating an agile project will be called upon to fill the Scrum Master shoes – regardless of their experience level or current project responsibilities.

What is a Scrum Master?

The Scrum Master is a person who helps the Product Owner, Development Team, and the Team to work together efficiently and effectively. The Scrum Master maintains a common understanding of the Scrum process and ensures that it is followed.

In addition, they act as a neutral facilitator for all meetings, remove impediments to progress, and provide coaching and training to help the team become more effective.

The Scrum Master guides how to adapt the Scrum process to their organization's specific needs. They also help teams improve their practices by providing feedback and education on best practices.

Scrum Master Roles and Responsibilities

  • Facilitate the Scrum Teams in their work.
  • Ensure that the teams understand all requirements and that they can meet them.
  • Ensure that all communication between the teams is effective and efficient.
  • Provide any additional training required for the team members to perform their work effectively.
  • Understanding the teams' context and situation and their goals and objectives.
  • Ensuring that each team member clearly understands who they are working with, their work roles, and any special requirements they may have (e.g., accessibility).
  • Ensuring all team members understand how they can contribute to the product vision and strategy.
  • Facilitating frequent interactions among all team members so that commitments are met, risks are shared, and progress is made (e.g., daily stand-up meetings).

Why Do Teams Need a Scrum Master?

There are many reasons why the Scrum Master needs to be a part of the Scrum team. The Scrum Master is not just another person on the team but an integral part.

The Scrum Master's role on a Scrum team is to help ensure that everyone on the team has access to information about what is going on at all times, as well as make sure that people are working together in a way that will help them achieve their goals. This role's goal is also to ensure whoever may need help has access to it as quickly as possible. This can be done by ensuring that everyone understands how they should interact with each other and how they should handle their tasks within their roles. It also means ensuring there are clear understandings and communication within the team.

This is important because there could be confusion over who should do what or how something should be done. As well as this, if you need someone who can participate in meetings and get everyone involved in discussions around what needs to happen next about your project or task, then it will take longer than necessary for things to get done.

Scrum Master vs. Product Manager

  • Scrum master and product manager are two different titles. The main difference between the two is that one oversees the development activities of a team, and the other manages the overall business objectives of an organization.
  • Scrum masters help teams deliver products, while product managers help organizations deliver products. Both roles involve collaborating with people from different departments to build and deliver software.
  • Scrum masters create software, while product managers focus on its delivery.
  • A scrum master guides a team through an iterative process that involves breaking down features into small increments and regularly testing them against user needs before releasing them to production. The product manager is responsible for managing this entire process, which involves coming up with business requirements and then helping teams develop software based on those requirements.
  • The scrum master is responsible for the overall success of the project and the product. The product manager is responsible for the development of a specific product.
  • A scrum master oversees the full sprint and ensures that all teams work together effectively. Finally, a product manager leads a particular team and oversees daily work.
  • The main difference between these two roles is that a scrum master focuses more on long-term planning. In contrast, a product manager focuses more on short-term planning.

Scrum Master vs. Project Manager

  • Scrum Master is a person who leads the Scrum process.
  • He is responsible for ensuring that all scrum team members can work effectively together and that they clearly understand the roles they are required to perform.
  • The Scrum Master also maintains a good working relationship with the product owner and stakeholders by acting as their agent during the development phase of an Agile project.
  • In contrast, a Project Manager is responsible for managing projects within or between organizations.
  • The manager’s job is to prepare the project plan, manage the resources (managers and staff) involved in implementing that plan, monitor progress toward completion of objectives and ensure that budgeted funds are available to fulfill tasks assigned to team members.

Qualities of a Successful Scrum Master

The qualities of a successful Scrum Master include:

  • A good understanding of the Agile development process's principles, values, and practices.
  • Understanding the individuals involved with the project and their roles and responsibilities.
  • Knowledge of product management, design, development, and customer services.
  • An ability to communicate effectively both verbally and in writing.
  • The ability to influence change without being confrontational or confrontational; this includes dealing with difficult situations professionally and tactfully.


As for the future, Scrum Master is a profession just like every other programming job, and it might get fully independent shortly. However, lately, there has been an increased demand for Scrum Masters, and salaries are much higher than before.

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6 Significant Characteristics of Cloud Computing You Must Know

6 Significant Characteristics of Cloud Computing You Must Know

Cloud involves an ever-growing list of techniques and tools; however, the significant aspects of cloud computing remain the same. The first alternative of the cloud to popularize was AWS, followed by Microsoft and Google 

In the modern era, cloud computing extends from system to SaaS models, including Artificial Intelligence, IoT, serverless computing, and much more.

Though each subset has its advantages and disadvantages; however, numerous core cloud computing aspects underpin all of them. 

This article will show you six main characteristics of cloud computing, explaining why it's the perfect solution for building and deploying innovative applications.

6 Essential Cloud Computing Characteristics

Resource Pooling

Public cloud providers depend on multi-tenant designs to accommodate more users simultaneously. Customers' workloads are preoccupied with the hardware and software, which serve numerous customers on the same host Cloud providers mainly depend on custom hardware and abstraction layers to enhance security and speed up user's resource access.


Regarding security, Cloud services develop a stored copy of data to prevent data loss. If a server misses the data, the copied version is retrieved and restored from the other server. This characteristic comes in handy when several users work simultaneously on a particular file, and it suddenly gets corrupted.

On-demand Self-service

With data centers across the globe, Amazon, Microsoft, Google, and others have a colossal amount of computing and storage assets ready. This represents a radical departure for IT professionals customized to a procurement process that can take months.

Instead of waiting for a new server to be delivered to a private data center, creators can choose the tools they require via a cloud's self-service portal and setup the right way.

Wide Network Access

A significant part of the cloud's utility is its ubiquity. With internet connectivity, data can be uploaded and accessed from any part of the world. As a result, the cloud is an eye-alluring choice for most businesses with a combination of OS, platforms, and devices. 

To preserve broad network access, cloud providers track and ensure various metrics that reflect how people access cloud data and resources.

Remote Working

Cloud Computing promotes remote working, where clients can function, work, or deliver services from anywhere. Hence, users can access organizational data even on their smart devices, thus, enabling them to connect swiftly.

Service Excellence

Cloud Computing ensures that customers receive the top-notch service possible. The benefits highlighted in Service Legal Agreements must have constant availability and comprehensive resources, capacity, and performance. Any compromise on these services leads to client loss and popularity.

Benefits of Cloud Computing

The following are the reasons why one must leverage Cloud Computing:

Deliver scalable business solutions

Reduce expenses in terms of procuring new hardware/software

Provide security and make easy access to Computing resources

It helps to maximize the capacity to adapt to the increasing enterprise demands of huge companies

Help enterprise clients to assess apps and services seamlessly.

Reliable as they offer backup and affordable methods for data recovery.


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Top Scrum Master Question for 2022

Top Scrum Master Question for 2022

  1. Differentiate Between Agile and Scrum.

Agile is a software development method that focuses on the adaptive delivery of requirements in an iterative, incremental manner. It's a framework that enables teams to deliver working software frequently and with high quality.

Scrum is an agile framework that provides a set of principles and practices to help teams develop software more effectively.

  1. What do you mean by user stories in Scrum? What are the advantages of using them?

User stories describe a specific feature and its requirements without understanding how it should be implemented. They are used in Scrum to help focus on what the user is trying to achieve, and they help ensure that users build the product for users.

The advantage of using them is that they help to ensure that the right features get built and that features are developed in a way that allows users to understand what they do, why they do it, and how they do it.

  1. How are user stories, epics, and tasks different?

User stories are the smallest unit of work that a single team member can complete.

An epic describes a single feature or story.

Tasks are the smallest unit of work that only one person can complete.

  1. What do you mean by timeboxing in Scrum?

The timebox is a constraint that you place on the development team. The purpose of the timebox is to limit the amount of time spent on any given task and ensure that work is going to be used while waiting for other tasks to complete or considering other constraints. Timeboxing is a critical part of Scrum because it helps keep the development team focused on achieving their work as quickly as possible and helps them stay within their sprint goal.

  1. What are the tools used in Scrum projects?
  • Microsoft Azure DevOps
  • Asana
  • Jira
  • Trello
  1. What do you mean by 'Confidence Vote' in Scrum? Why is it important?

In Scrum, a team will have to release their product on time. If they don't meet the deadline, then they can be penalized. This is called a 'confidence vote. The team will vote on if they think they can meet the deadline or not. If they are confident they can reach the deadline, they can release their product and be confident in themselves.

The confidence vote is important because it helps teams know whether or not they have enough time to finish their project by the deadline. For example, suppose a team has a lot of work left to do. In that case, it is more likely that they won't make it in time for the next release date, and this could lead to them being penalized for not meeting their goal by missing deadlines which could lead to them losing money or even losing customers if someone else releases before them!

  1. What do you understand about Scope Creep? How can Scope Creep be managed?

Scope creep is a common problem in agile development. "scope creeps" refers to adding new functionality, features, and requirements to a project after it has started. This can be a costly problem, as it can increase the project's scope without adding any value.

In Scrum, scope creep is managed by allocating time for each task and ensuring the team stays within their sprints. If a team member can't complete their task within their sprint, they should be removed from the sprint, and they will have no impact.

  1. What is the role of a Scrum Master in a sprint retrospective?

A Scrum Master is a person who has the role of managing the Scrum project. They usually work in tandem with the Product Owner to help ensure that the project is successful and that everyone works together towards a common goal.

The Scrum Master has two prominent roles:

To help guide and coach the team through the Sprint review, helping them identify any issues they may have faced during their sprints and any improvements they want to make.

To help manage communication between stakeholders throughout the development process - is available to advise on how to deal with issues that may arise and step back and let others take control where appropriate.

  1. What exactly do you mean by Sprint in Scrum?

Sprint is the term for the period you are working on your product. It can be any period from a few hours to several months, depending on your needs and how much work you want to do in that time.

A sprint is a self-organizing event with no fixed start or end date but rather a focus on achieving specific goals within a sprint. Sprint starts with planning and ends with a review, so it can be considered a cycle of events.

Scrum sprints are typically 2 weeks (1 week each way) long and take place every 2 weeks or when specific events occur, such as when something hits an important milestone or some other special occasion that requires team attention.

  1. When should you use Waterfall over Scrum?

The reasons to use Waterfall over Scrum are :


First, Scrum is a framework, while Waterfall is a methodology. A waterfall can be applied to any project lifecycle, not just software development.

Second, the Agile Manifesto states that people and stakeholders should be involved early and often in the project lifecycle. But this is not possible when using Scrum because it needs an explicit process for communication between stakeholders and developers.

Third, Waterfall is better suited for large projects with clear goals, high-level planning, detailed specifications, and well-defined roles for all parties involved.

  1. What are the Scrum Process Artifacts?

The Product Backlog lists all items needed for the product or feature. In addition, it contains all user stories, acceptance criteria, and other requirements for that particular item in the product backlog.

The Sprint Backlog contains all tasks necessary to complete each sprint to meet its goal(s). These tasks may include analyzing the current status, creating designs and prototypes, developing code or tests needed to test completed functionality according to user stories in the product backlog, etc.

The product increment is the new functionality added to the product during each iteration, i.e., after each sprint. This is done so that all stakeholders can see how far along you are in your progress toward delivering functionality and making changes based on feedback from stakeholders or customers.

  1. Describe Scrumban?

Scrumban is a business management software that allows you to automate your daily tasks and give your employees more freedom.

With Scrumban, you can create simple or complex workflows to save time and increase efficiency. You can also use Scrumban to automate the most tedious parts of your business by creating scripts that will run on specific dates or times of the day.

This approach allows you to reuse scripts as much as possible without having to worry about constantly creating them from scratch each time you want to rerun them.

MCQ’s on Scrum

Who can be the best user proxy?

  1. Agile coach
  2. Scrum Master
  3. Customers
  4. Developer

When can a Sprint be canceled?

  1. The Sprint items are no longer needed
  2. Sprint can never be canceled
  3. Information required to start the development is not available
  4. Whenever the Product Owner say

How is Product Backlog Arranged?

  1. High priority items on top, followed low-priority items
  2. Large items at the top, small items at the bottom
  3. Items are randomly arranged
  4. Newer stories prioritized on top, followed by older stories

Who is responsible for ensuring that the scrum values and pillars are adhered to at all times?

  1. Product Owner
  2. Development Team
  3. Scrum Master
  4. None of above

Which one is not part of the Agile Manifesto?

  1. Maximize utilization
  2. Working Daily Together
  3. Continuous Attention
  4. Early & Continuous Delivery of Business Value

Should product backlog be ordered based on?

  1. The complexity of the items being delivered
  2. Size of the items being delivered
  3. Value of the items being delivered
  4. The risk associated with the items

Which of these is not a scrum pillar?

  1. Adaptation
  2. Focus
  3. Transparency
  4. Inspection

The Product Owner in a Scrum project?

  1. Collaborates with the developers over prioritization of product backlog items, but the product owner has the final say
  2. Creates a product backlog items but leaves prioritization to the business analyst
  3. Collaborates with the developers over prioritization of product backlog items, but the developers have the final say
  4. Has no control over the prioritization of product backlog items

Iterative development is NOT a good idea for?

  1. Back end development
  2. Front end development
  3. Software development
  4. Middleware development

What is the role of a tester in Scrum?

  1. In Scrum, there is no such thing as a tester.
  2. Bug hunting
  3. Create test scenarios and test cases as needed.
  4. Write scripts for automation
  1. What is conveyed by the BurnDown chart?
  1. The progress in the project.
  2. The team's rate of doing work.
  3. The team members' capabilities.
  4. The amount of work that needs to be completed in relation to the amount of time available.



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5 Best CompTIA Certifications to Pursue in 2023

5 Best CompTIA Certifications to Pursue in 2023

One of the most appropriate methods to swiftly climb the career ladder is to gain accreditation in the right domain. For example, if you're working in the IT sector and focusing on fields like system admin, server environment, or computer security, there are numerous credentials, especially CompTIA courses, to help you display your skills and expertise.

CompTIA is a leading provider of vendor-neutral IT accreditations worldwide, helping IT experts become the next leaders in the digitally connected realm, where more than 2Mn IT credentials are globally issued.

Let's see the five best CompTIA certifications to pursue in 2023.

CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP)

CASP is one of the most demanding accreditations that several IT professionals desire to have in their toolkits. It covers the following domains - Risk analysis, Managing risk & forecasting, and Enterprise security.

Enterprise security is a crucial factor of CASP as it gives individuals practical skills to manage SME-sized organizations. The credential displays that an IT expert has in-depth knowledge and skills in computer security matters. 

This is also a globally renowned credential and is vendor-neutral. It highlights that you're competent in enterprise security, communication, computing integration, and business disciplines.

CompTIA Security+ Certification

To have an alluring career in the network security field, a great place to start is to achieve the CompTIA Security+ accreditation Network security is among the significantly expanding domains in IT. Successfully passing the credential means you're competent in the network system, access control, security, and organization security.

Security+ is an excellent step to your Network+ credential, as it develops networking by focusing on the central security factors. Furthermore, there is an ever-growing demand for IT security professionals as threats to computer security are rising in severity. Hence, if you gain experience in networking and security, you will become a great fortune to any organization recruiting you.

CompTIA Network+ Certification

If you are an entry-level IT professional, then Network+ certification is for you. However, the credential is highly significant for those who wish to set their sights on becoming a great IT support expert. It's an excellent complement to the CompTIA A+ credential as it covers beyond the fundamental networking abilities only covered in the A+ accreditation.

Once you gain the credential, you'll have competence in the installation, management, troubleshooting, maintenance, and configuration of whole network systems. 

Like an A+ credential, a Network+ certificate doesn't need a computer science degree to pass the test.

CompTIA A+ Certification

CompTIA A+ credential isn't just a globally renowned accreditation but a beginning course for a strong IT career. This course is a sign that an individual has computer technician skills. This encompasses numerous operating infrastructures such as IBM, Microsoft, Novell, and Apple and covers several technologies.

Several workforces regard this accreditation as the industry standard for support technicians, as certification indicates fundamental competency as a computer professional.

Moreover, it's a globally renowned certification and proves the holder is competent in security, networking, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting, and installation in various operating systems and technologies.

CompTIA Server+ Certification

Server+ accreditation is excellent for system admins as the knowledge and training in technical skills are required to build, maintain, troubleshoot, and support server hardware and software technologies.

The credential is a mid-level program covering advanced computing topics. Hence, it's aimed at professionals with a minimum of 18-24 months of experience working around the server environment. 

According to CompTIA, it's best to achieve an A+ credential before jumping onto this program. Moreover, the A+ certification offers you a firm grounding for other CompTIA credentials like Server+, though you can get through with good computer experience.

To pass the CompTIA Server+ accreditation test, you'll have to pass a conventional format test that includes situations based on working with servers like disaster recovery, installation, upgrading, and more.

In addition, ensure that before appearing for the Server+ examination, you must have a solid working experience in the above domains.


CompTIA credentials are a trial and tested means of enhancing your career. As the credentials are vendor-neutral and globally renowned, you can get a job anywhere. In addition, the certification helps set your career to a greater extent as there is an ongoing shortage of computer experts, especially in the cybersecurity domain.

Moreover, merging A+, Server+, and Network+ is an excellent method to display your range of computer expertise to potential recruiters. All these 5 CompTIA certifications will give you a solid basis in IT and maximize your marketability, ultimately achieving Microsoft MCSA certification.


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Is Data Science the Most-sought After Career in 2022?

Is Data Science the Most-sought After Career in 2022?

As we dive deep into the year and can still see the role of Data Scientists booming, it's no doubt that data science is the most significant trend worldwide, with data-driven decision-making gaining massive popularity. Irrespective of how large or small the business is, every organization looks for master workforces who can understand and analyze the data precisely, making it the sexiest job and desirable career in any domain.

Data Science includes advanced analytics practices and scientific principles to extract valuable information from decision-making data. The technology leverages complex machine-learning algorithms to create predictive models. In addition, it leverages several statistical techniques ranging from data transformation to machine learning modeling.

The Data Science market is expected to expand from over $95Bn in 2021 to $322Bn by 2026. The role of data scientists combines mathematics, computer science, and statistics. They analyze, process, and model data and then interpret the outcomes to develop actionable insights for organizations.

The role was relatively less at the time; however, as more firms accepted big data, they realized they required an individual who could merge analytics, programming, and experimentation skills. Thus, Data Science will become the most sought-after career in the job market in 2022.

Data Science, the Hottest Buzzword in the Job Market

Data Science has drastically become a subject matter across various industry verticals. As a result, the data science job is more in demand than ever with recruiters. In addition, artificial Intelligence (AI) is significantly rising in ventures, and organizations globally feel the need for data scientists to create AI models.

According to the US BLS, the number of job opportunities needing data science skills is expected to rise by 27.9% by 2026. There are no automated techniques that can replace the skills of data scientists as long as we continuously learn and develop data-driven solutions. In the data science world, it's a top-notch professional ranking with the training to discover the world of big data. Many data professionals highlighted that they spend much of their time wrangling data, which is still the scenario despite a few developments in leveraging AI for data management.

Data experts understand that they face technical issues; however, they don't permit that to bog down their research for new solutions. Several other data scientists, especially from companies such as LinkedIn, Google, Walmart, and more, have added to and refined the toolkit. Over 80% of organizations globally are investing a large part of their investments into developing a skilled data analytics division, thus recruiting the most innovative talent pool in the industry.


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Scrum Project Management

Scrum Project Management

These days, project management has become a crucial area of business. How you deal with it can determine the success of your upcoming projects. Scrum is a highly-popular method focused on stakeholder, team, and product management.

Scrum is a lean and flexible approach to project management that takes the best practices from other project management frameworks and distills them into core principles to help teams deliver high-quality software and avoid risks.

What is Scrum?

Scrum is a framework for project management, not a process for working on projects. Scrum's work has been refined over time, and there are many different ways to implement it, but all versions of it share some core ideas.

  • The product owner owns the product backlog (the list of items needed) and sets priorities throughout the project.
  • The development team creates a backlog item daily based on what they have accomplished during the previous day. They then use those items to create new work items if necessary.
  • The team manages its work by assigning tasks to individual team members who report on their progress at daily stand-up meetings. The daily stand-ups also include a check-in with each member's progress against their assigned tasks or tasks from other team members.
  • After each sprint, each team member goes through an evaluation meeting to discuss how well they did on their current sprint goal(s). This includes a retrospective, where they reflect on their actions and identify valuable lessons learned.

How is Scrum Different from Traditional Project Management?

Scrum is a framework for product development and management. It was designed to help organizations move from a series of projects to a continuous flow of products.

Traditional project management is a process that focuses on planning, scheduling, cost estimation, and risk management. Traditional project management has its roots in the aerospace industry, where the development cycle was very long, expensive, and time-consuming. Scrum leverages many of these same principles but adds more flexibility to adapt to changing requirements.

The Scrum framework helps teams manage their work through an iterative process of creating a product increment (typically called a sprint), testing it with users or customers, releasing it as code into test environments (typically called "user stories"), and then delivering it back to production as another increment (which can be delivered as another sprint).


Scrum is one of the most practical ways to introduce agile practices into your organization. It implements many of the principles of Agile Software Development and can be implemented quickly with little training (although it does require some training).

 These are the advantages of using Scrum:

  • It helps you focus on delivering value instead of managing processes and documentation.
  • It provides transparency across all teams.
  • It helps you create a culture where people feel empowered.
  • It encourages collaboration between all members of your team.
  • It allows you to have more control over your project timeline.
  • It allows you to improve the design quality of your software products by creating more stable requirements upfront (before coding).
  • You can use the same methodology for large and smaller projects.


There are some disadvantages of Scrum:

  • There are no set time limits for the sprints. So if you need to deliver a vital feature quickly but only have a little time left in your last sprint, you can always extend it by adding more stories.
  • You can't predict precisely how long it will take to complete a task; you'll have to find out as you go along (and hope your estimates are correct).
  • The process of estimating task duration is entirely subjective and ambiguous because there's no clear definition of what "done" means in each case — one person may think they've finished. In contrast, another person thinks they're still working on it!

Steps of the Scrum Process

The following steps are used in the scrum process:

  • First, define: the product owner, project manager, and developers define the project's scope and requirements. Next, the team works together to uncover what features need to be built, what tasks are required for those features, and how long lessons take.
  • Gather: the team gathers requirements from stakeholders and gets an agreement on what needs to be built.
  • Create: the team creates a plan for completing each task, breaking down work into subtasks and estimating how long each subtask will take.
  • Plan: the team updates their goals as they complete tasks, adding new features as needed or making changes based on feedback from customers or other stakeholders.
  • Do: each person completes their assigned task(s) until it's done right!

Scrum Tools

Jira is one of the most well-known agile management tools. Enterprises use it and software development firms and small and large businesses.

 Trello is a task management tool popular with teams of all sizes, including software development teams and marketing efforts. It is easy to use but offers customizable options that allow you to organize processes differently.

Scrums is an easy-to-use, intelligent tool that helps you manage your Scrum projects. It allows you to organize tasks into checklists and monitor the percentage completion so that you always know where your project is.

Active Collab is an all-in-one agile project management application. In addition to standard Scrum tools, it comes with several extra features, such as adding and assigning tasks, creating a mobile app or software, managing a tech company, or simply beginning an internet business.

Zoho Sprints is a cloud-based project management tool designed for agile teams. It's easy to use and was created with agile methods in mind. Zoho Sprints helps you plan and track your projects, create dashboards and backlogs, assign tasks, schedule meetings, communicate with your team members, and more.


In the end, a project requires much more than just a website. It requires careful planning and the resources to carry out that plan. Scrum is thus an excellent framework for managing a complex project, as it helps teams manage their time and tasks effectively. In addition, Scrum provides a structure for ideation, implementation, and experimentation that wouldn't otherwise exist. And with clear goals in mind, teams can deliver more innovative websites and apps for clients in less time. It's a win-win situation for all involved.

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Business Analytics Vs Data Science

Business Analytics Vs Data Science

Understanding business analytics and data science is not a daunting query for just experts. The use of the internet has drastically increased to 70%, making the practical use of data essential. The industry verticals like entertainment, healthcare, banking, and manufacturing, and more accurately monitor data to make better business decisions.

Business Analytics and Data Science involve knowledge & information gathering, and modeling. However, the difference is that Analytics is linked to business-oriented issues like profit, cost, and more, while Science answers questions based on geographic influence, customer business demands, and seasonal factors.

In other words, Data Science combines data with algorithm technology & building to answer a wide array of questions. In contrast, Business Analytics is the company data analysis with the statistical concept to obtain insights and solutions.

Business Analytics: Explained

Business Analytics is the statistical study that bridges the gap between business and information technology by leveraging structured data to offer meaningful insights. Some of the top industries where business analytics are widely used are marketing, telecommunications, finance, supply chain, and healthcare.

According to LinkedIn Talent Solutions, a business analyst serves as a facilitator, communicator, and mediator - seeking the best techniques to enhance processes and maximize effectiveness via technology, analytical solutions, strategies, and more.

Some of the marketable skills of a business analyst are as follows:

•          Data visualization and storytelling

•          Mathematical and statistical skills

•          Interpretations

•          Analytical reasoning

•          Proficiency in and written and communication skills.

Data Science: Explained

Data Science is the study of data leveraging technology, statistics, and algorithm, using both structured and unstructured data. It the process of leveraging data to determine solutions and predict results for a problem statement. Some of the top sectors leveraging data science are: e-commerce, manufacturing, and finance.

Data scientists apply Machine Learning algorithms to video, numbers, audio, text, and images to retrieve various insights from them. In addition, they create ML pipelines and customized data products to understand their customers and ventures to make meaningful decisions.

Some of core skills required in data science are:

  • Machine Learning
  • Statistical analysis
  • Data visualization and storytelling
  • Computer science and programming
  • Multivariable calculus and linear algebra

Business Analytics Vs Data Science



Statistical study of business data to gain meaningful insights.

Study of data using technology, statistics, and algorithms

Leverage structured data

Leverage structured and unstructured data

Coding less as it's focused more on statistics.

Coding widely used

Whole analysis based on statistical concepts.

Statistics leveraged at the end of analysis followed by coding.

Studies trends and patterns related to business.

Studies almost every trend and pattern.

Average salary: $88,550 annually (As per ONET OnLine)

Average salary: $122,840 annually (As per ONET OnLine)



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Product Manager Vs. Product Owner

Product Manager Vs. Product Owner

There needs to be more clarity on the difference between a product owner and a product manager. Most companies start with a product owner who takes care of all the technical details and works closely with the developers to build features. However, there is more to the job of a product owner than that just coding new features. So let's figure out the difference and if it's necessary for your company.

The Product Owner and the Product Manager are two roles that may seem familiar. Still, they could be pretty different from each other. The differences between these two roles consider their purpose, how much authority they have over tasks and specific projects, and how much time they spend on development work.

Difference between Product Manager and Product Owner

A product manager is responsible for delivering a product to the market. The product manager knows what the development needs and needs to look like. The product manager then writes the requirements document, which details the product's features, benefits, and other requirements.

The product owner is responsible for defining the project's vision and goals. They are also responsible for communicating with the user community during design sessions, validating ideas, and ensuring that all stakeholders understand what will be delivered and why.

Product Manager

The Product Manager is a person who has the responsibility of managing the product development and marketing process of a company. The Product Manager should be able to identify and understand customer needs, develop new products, and manage the delivery of those products on time.

For example, suppose your product requires an update. In that case, you can predict how many people would benefit from it and then estimate how much time it will take to develop such an update.

This work involves gathering information about your customers, competitors, and other markets where your product might be sold. You also need to know what kind of service you want customers to get when they use your product.

Duties of Product Manager

The Product Manager is also accountable for the following:

  • Ensure the product meets customer needs, solves problems, and satisfies customers.
  • Identify new opportunities to create value for customers with new features or products.
  • Providing regular updates on progress toward delivering value through features, functionality, and product performance.
  • The product manager is also responsible for ensuring that all necessary tasks are completed before launch.
  • The Product Manager also communicates with customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders to achieve product goals and manage the product portfolio.

Skills Required for Product Manager

  • One of the essential skills required by a product manager is business acumen. A good product manager needs to understand every aspect of their business and how it relates to their products.
  • They must also be able to identify problems before they become significant issues and decide if they can be fixed cost-effectively or if it would be better to delay the launch until another time.
  • Another essential skill required for this role is leadership ability. This does not just mean being able to lead employees in the workplace; it also means getting things done within your team and helping others achieve their goals within your organization.
  • Product managers are expected to have strong analytical skills, including identifying problems and opportunities for new products or services.

Product Owner

The product owner is responsible for the overall success of the product. They are a member of the product team and leads by example. The role of the product owner is to ensure that everyone on their team knows the goals for each sprint, what features should be built to meet those goals, and why those features are essential.

The product owner is not a "product manager," a "designer," an "engineer," or any other title that you see bandied about in business today. Instead, they are simply someone who owns what they build — and makes sure that others know it too.

Duties of Product Owner

  • The Product Owner is accountable for the product vision, business strategy, and overall product success.
  • The Product Owner has ultimate authority over the project and its management.
  • The Product Owner is accountable for all decisions regarding executing the product vision and strategy.
  • Establish a product-market fit strategy.
  • Collaborate with stakeholders to build products.
  • Manage the product backlog throughout the development.

Skills Required For Product Owner

  • The Product Owner is responsible for understanding what customers want, building it, and making it valuable.
  • The Product Owner needs to identify the customer problem and explain it through the product vision. Then, the product owner needs to be able to create an image for products that customers will love.
  • The product owner must be able to articulate what makes a good product, why they chose the one they did, and why they believe it's better than another option.
  • Product owners need to be able to listen carefully to truly understand their customers' needs. They should also be able to learn about any obstacles or problems that might hinder their product from being successful.
  • Outstanding communication skills, able to influence and lead teams.
  • Ability to work under pressure and manage multiple priorities at once.

Tips for product managers and product owners to work together better

The product manager and product owner are two critical roles in agile software development. They have different responsibilities but must work together to create a successful product. Here are five tips for creating synergy between the product manager and product owner:

Understand how each role works. For example, the PM is responsible for defining the vision and strategy of the product. In contrast, the PO brings a collaborative approach to developing features in small batches.

Agree on goals for each release before beginning work on a project. This gives everyone a clear view of what's expected from them over the next few weeks or months, making it much more likely that everyone will work towards a common goal.

Ensure that there is regular communication between team members about the progress being made on individual tasks. Make sure that if anyone has any concerns about what's being done or needs more information, they feel comfortable speaking up to address these issues as quickly as possible before they become problems.

Hold regular retrospectives at the end of each sprint to identify areas where your process could be improved and discuss how you can use this information to do things better next time.


One of the most significant differences between a Product Owner and a Product Manager is how they fit into an organization's structure. This can be difficult to manage because both roles are visible and often require them to work with several departments within their organization. In addition, the Product Owner or Product Manager must have strong communication skills to effectively liaise between the "development department" and other stakeholders in the business like sales, marketing, and HR. This ensures everyone is on the same page and has regular communication as updates are made for a product.


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A Guide to Machine Learning 2022

A Guide to Machine Learning 2022

Machine Learning has changed our lives for the past few decades – taking pictures with a blurry background and focused face to virtual assistants answering our queries; we are drastically dependent on applications that execute ML at their core.

A data scientist will scrutinize the received data and extract actionable insights. And an ML engineer will create the self-running software that uses the extracted data and automates predictive models.

These engineers are experienced in fundamental data science skills such as quantitative analysis methods, statistics, data structures & modeling, and foundational software engineering skills.

With innovation around Machine Learning, it's no surprise that any enthusiast looking to advance their career in software technology would choose Machine Learning as a base to set their job.

As Machine Learning is a central factor of data science, algorithms are trained to make predictions through statistical methods, revealing crucial information within data mining projects. 

Significance of Machine Learning

The main goal of ML technology is to help organizations enhance their overall productivity, decision-making process, and process flow. In addition, as machines start learning via algorithms, it will help ventures to resolve data patterns, helping the organization make better decisions without human support.

Some of the Machine Learning benefits are:

Business Transformation

Machine Learning has been changing businesses with the potential to offer valuable insights. For example, the insurance and finance sectors use the technology to create meaningful patterns within big data, prevent fraud, and provide personalized plans to several customers. 

When considering the healthcare sector, fitness and wearable sensors powered by technology allow us to take charge of their health, minimizing the pressure on healthcare experts.

ML is also leveraged in the oil and gas industry to determine new energy sources, system failure predictions, analysis of ground minerals, and more.

As technologies evolve to new heights daily, Machine Learning has been augmenting business or organizational growth. This trend highlights how ML plays a vital role in business transformation.

Instantaneous Predictions

A feature that attracts the ML enthusiast is the swift processing of insightful data from myriad sources – helping to make spontaneous predictions that can be valuable for companies.

ML algorithms provide meaningful data on customers' buying and spending patterns, allowing businesses to devise procedures to minimize loss and maximize profits.

Moreover, it helps determine the backlogs of marketing campaigns and customer acquisition policies.

Types of Machine Learning

Machine learning is classified into three fields:

Supervised Learning

Here, labeled data is used for training the data. Then, the input goes through the Machine Learning algorithm and is used to train the model. 

Once done, we can feed unknown data into the trained ML model and obtain a new desired response.

Prime algorithms that are used for supervised learning are:

  • Naive Bayes
  • Polynomial Regression
  • Decision Trees, and more.

Unsupervised Learning

In this type of ML, the training data is unlabelled and unknown. However, labeled data is necessary for the input to be guided to the ML algorithm, where unsupervised learning occurs. 

This data is used in the algorithm for training the model. Finally, the trained model searches for a pattern and generates the desired outcome. This case is similar to the Enigma machine trying to break code without human intervention.

Prime algorithms that are used for unsupervised learning are:

  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Fuzzy Means
  • Apriori
  • Partial Least Squares, and more.

Reinforcement Learning

The ML algorithm identifies data through a trial-and-error process in reinforcement learning and then decides what action yields higher benefits. Three significant components of this ML type are - the agent, the environment, and the steps.

The agent is the decision-maker, the environment consists of everything the agent interacts with, and the actions are what the agent does. This type of ML occurs when the decision-maker chooses activities that increase the expected profit over a given period.

Technical Skills of Machine Learning Engineers

We have learned how ML application operates, followed by various job offers in the IT domain for software engineers and data scientists. To be a part of Machine Learning technology, you need specific technical and soft skills. 

Neural Network Architecture

Neural networks, called Simulated Neural Networks (SNN), are the predefined algorithm sets used for Machine Learning task implementation.

They offer models and play a vital role in this futuristic technology. Now, ML seekers must be skilled in neural networks because it provides an understanding of how our brain works and assist in model & simulating an artificial one. 

Some of the neural network areas that are essential for ML are:

  • Boltzmann machine network
  • Convolutional neural networks
  • Deep auto-encoders

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

It is a branch of linguistics, AI & computer science that, combined with Machine Learning, Deep Learning (DL), and statistical models, enables computers to process human language in the form of spoken words and text and understand its whole meaning with the writer's intent.

Some techniques and libraries of NLP technology used in ML are:

  • Word2vec
  • Summarization
  • Genism & NLTK
  • Sentiment analysis

Applied Mathematics

Machine Learning is all about developing algorithms that can learn data to predict. Hence, mathematics is significant for solving data science projects' DL use cases. Therefore, to be an ML engineer, you must be an expert in the following math specializations.

For instance, choosing appropriate algorithms to suit the outcomes, understanding & working with parameters, deciding validation approaches, and estimating the confidence intervals.

If you are wondering about the math proficiency level one must hold to be an ML engineer, it depends on the engineer's station. 

Data Modeling & Evaluation

When Machine Learning has to work with extensive data and employ them in predictive analytics, data modeling & evaluation become essential to deal with these bulks and estimate the final model's good.

Hence, the following concepts are must-learn skills for an ML engineer:

  • F1 Score
  • Log loss
  • Mean absolute error
  • Confusion matrix
  • Classification accuracy
  • Area under curve
  • Mean squared error

Soft Skills for Machine Learning Engineers

While ML engineering is a technical job, soft skills such as problem-solving, collaboration with others, communication, time management, etc., lead to the successful completion and delivery of the project.

Team Work

Machine Learning Engineers are often at the center of AI initiatives within a firm, so they naturally work with software engineers, product managers, data scientists, marketers, and testers. The potential to work closely with others and contribute to a supportive working environment is a skill many recruiters seek in ML engineers.


The potential to solve an issue is a vital skill required for both software & Machine Learning engineers and data scientists. ML focuses on solving challenges in real time, so the potential to think creatively and critically about the problem and develop solutions accordingly is a fundamental skill.


Machine Learning Engineers must possess top-notch communication skills when communicating with shareholders regarding the project objectives, timeline, and expected delivery. In addition, we know that ML engineers collaborate with data scientists, marketing & product teams, research scientists, and more; hence, communication skill is crucial.

Domain Knowledge 

To create self-running software and optimize solutions leveraged by end-users and businesses, Machine Learning Engineers should have an insight into the requirements of business demands and the type of issues the software is solving. 

Without domain knowledge, an ML engineer's recommendation may lack accuracy, their task may overlook compelling aspects, and it might be strenuous to evaluate a model.

Programming Skills of Machine Learning Engineers

Machine learning is about coding and feeding the machines to carry out tasks. Therefore, ML engineers must have hands-on experience in software programming and related subjects to provide the code.

ML Algorithms & Libraries 

Machine Learning engineers are expected to work with myriads algorithms, packages, and libraries as part of daily tasks. 

ML engineers must be skilled with the following ML algorithms and libraries:

  • Knowledge in packages & APIs - TensorFlow, Spark MLlib, sci-kit-learn, and more.
  • Decide and choosing of hyperparameters that impact the learning model & the result.
  • Algorithm selection provides the best performance from support vector machines, Naive Bayes Classifiers, and more.


Machine Learning Engineers require most servers and clusters to operate are Linux (Unix) variants. Though they can be performed on Mac & Windows, more than half of the time, they are required to run on Unix systems only. Therefore, having good knowledge of Linux & Unix is vital to being an ML engineer.

Computer Science Fundamentals & Programming

Engineers must apply the concepts of computer science and programming accurately as per the situation. The following ideas play a significant role in ML and are a must on the skillset list:

  • Algorithms: search, sort, optimize, dynamic programming
  • Computer architecture: memory, bandwidth, cache, distributed processing, and more.
  • Data structures: queues, trees, stacks, graphs, and multi-dimensional arrays
  • Complexity & computability: big-O notation, P vs. NP, approximate algorithm, and more.

System Design and Software Engineering

Machine Learning Engineers must have strong knowledge of the following areas of software programming & system design, as all they do is code:

  • Top-notch measures to circumvent bottlenecks & develop user-friendly outcomes.
  • Algorithm scaling with data size.
  • Interacting with different working components and modules using library calls, REST APIs, and database queries.
  • Fundamental software design methodologies and codings like testing, requirement analysis, and version management.






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Top PMI Project Management CertificationsĀ 

Top PMI Project Management Certifications 

The need for project managers in every sector is rising. In the coming years, global companies will need over 88Mn individuals to work in project management positions.

We see that recruiting companies look for individuals with project management certifications. However, which certificate to opt for depends on the type of project manager you desire to be.

From associate project management to professional accreditation, the Project Management Institute provides various certifications for project professionals and those who want to pursue a career.

Ensure that acquiring a certification is never a piece of cake. To pass the stringent credential test with flying colors, you must put much effort into attaining the same, including specialized formal training and several hours of experience.

Let's see PMI's top project management certification

PMI Certification and Top 6 Accreditations: Explained

Starting from entry-level to professional ground, PMI provides a variety of project management certifications that helps you in improving your career in the project management domain.

A PMI accreditation is handy as the human resource market demands project management skills. 

The most prestigious PMI certification is the Project Management Professional (PMP) credential. However, other accreditations are suited for professionals in various career stages.

1. Project Management Professional (PMP)

It's a globally renowned and prestigious certificate that exposes you to benefits such as increased credibility, handsome remuneration, and high market value.

Acquiring PMP certification is difficult, as you will have to meet the eligibility prerequisites by PMI. However, there are other reasons PMP is known to be project managers' most challenging credential test. Instead, its examination pattern and validation are stringent.

The PMP examination tests your knowledge of People, Processes, and Business Environment.

According to the 2019 Exam Content Outline (ECO), the PMP examination has undergone a couple of changes and came into effect in 2021:

  • Knowledge domain areas have been reduced from five to three.
  • No. of questions will be 180 instead of 200.
  • The duration of the PMP exam is 230 minutes (approx. 4 hours), which contains a combination type of questions.

The PMP credential is excellent for individuals who have experience managing projects and are keen on up-skilling their careers.

2. Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)

CAPM is an entry-level certification offered by PMI to individuals hoping to manage projects, take on advanced roles, or add project management skills to their resumes.

The CAPM credential is a stepping stone to PMP certification that helps you gain knowledge on project management terminologies and concepts. Moreover, individuals with a CAPM tag can rule out PMP eligibility prerequisites.

3. PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)

PMI-ACP is an industry-recognized accreditation that proves your net worth as an Agile practitioner. It strengthens you with confidence in a framework obtaining traction and adoption by leading companies. 

This certification is mainly pursued by project-managing individuals following Agile practices and trains them about the tool, techniques, and concepts employed in project management.

Who qualifies for the PMI-ACP credential?

  • General Project Experience - 2,000 hours worked on project teams within the last five years or active PMP/PgMP certification.
  • Agile Project Experience - 1,500 hours working on agile project teams or with agile methodologies in the last three years. This is in addition to 2,000 hours earned in General Project Experience.
  • Agile Practice Training - 21 contact hours must be earned

4. Disciplined Agile

Disciplined Agile is a toolkit that targets the decisions you need to make, available options, and the trade-offs associated with the available options. It shows how you can effectively collaborate practices from Kanban, Scrum, SAFe, and other methodologies in a scalable manner. 

PMI provides four certifications in this field - Disciplined Agile Coach (DAC), Disciplined Agile ScrumMaster (DASM), Disciplined Agile Value Stream Consultant (DAVSC), and Disciplined Agile Senior ScrumMaster (DASSM). 

The certifications allow freshers to learn the fundamentals of the methodology and experienced Agile users to advance their skills. 

Who qualifies for the Disciplined Agile credentials?

  • Must have three years of experience working in an Agile leadership position.
  • Each certification also requires training program completion from a qualifying Disciplined Agile training center.

5. Professional in Business Analysis (PMI-PBA)

Business Analysis (BA) has become a competitive field of project management. However, becoming one can shift your career in a new direction while BA opportunities are rising.

The PMI-PBA certification tests you in assessment, planning, evaluation, monitoring, and other requirements related to BA aspects of project management.

Suppose you work with a project team and manage product development, or you are a project/program manager who performs BA. In that case, PMI-PBA certification is for these individuals.

Who qualifies for the PMI-PBA credential?

  • Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate's degree)
  • BA experience: 60 months
  • BA educational training: 35 contact hours


  • Bachelor's degree or the global equivalent
  • BA experience: 36 months
  • BA educational training: 35 contact hours

6. Program Management Professional (PgMP)

The PgMP certification will help you develop a robust leadership approach to manage multiple projects and improve your efficiency in navigating complex activities. 

You will learn to use the tools and techniques efficiently and understand business strategy and program processes. 

The PgMP credential will take you through the PMI's five management performance domains and use a scalable framework to manage varying-sized programs. 

PgMP accreditation is designed for the senior-level practitioner who manages multiple related projects in a coordinated way.

Who qualifies for the PgMP credential?

  • Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate's degree, or the global equivalent)
  • Project management experience: 6,000 hours
  • Program management experience: 10,500 hours


  • Four-year degree
  • Project management experience: 6,000 hours
  • Program management experience: 6,000 hours


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AI: A Future Career Option

AI: A Future Career Option

Artificial intelligence is one of the crucial technologies behind the ever-growing tech revolution. It affects industry and society in numerous ways, and that effect will expand far into the future.

With the AI domain increasing, significant issues arise, i.e., too many jobs and not enough qualified candidates. However, this pinpoints an opportunity for professionals with the knowledge and skills to enter AI.

Why is AI a Future Career Goal?

AI is drastically expanding vertically, which provides several career opportunities. For example, the Bureau of Labour Statistics projects that computer science researchers will experience a growth of over 15 percent between 2022 and 2029, much more rapid than the national average for career growth. So, consider the initial step towards a phenomenal career in artificial intelligence.

Suppose you're looking to flourish your career or make your profile more competitive in the job market. In that case, AI is a perfect place to donate your energy and time. Moreover, as the domain grows, it will have a far-reaching impact on various sectors, opening new opportunities for those with the proper skill set.

Artificial Intelligence needs drastic training and commitment; however, the rewards of an AI career far outweigh the investment. And for those already employed and who would like a career change, supplemental programs can help make a smoother transition to the AI domain.

AI and Computer Science are the most exciting fields today. Research in these domains is focused on determining novel techniques to advance this technology, which means there are several opportunities for individuals in ML and AI-based careers. 

Those looking to work in AI should consider a Master of Science in Artificial Intelligence, which offers students the skills, knowledge, and experience to build a successful career.

AI has different practical applications. For instance, it aids medical professionals in detecting diseases and illnesses. It's also used in transportation (self-driving cars and tracking trucks) for efficient deliveries.

Ventures use AI to identify performance figures, and manufacturers use it to assemble devices. 

The jobs pay handsome remuneration; the average base salary is $125,000 annually. And as AI is a central part of several advancements, a career in this field will remain constant for years.

Concluding Facts

AI is simply a branch of computer science, which is, in turn, a branch of technology. So those are three fields that will see plenty of growth in the coming years. 

And so long as you continue to develop your expertise and skillset, you'll be well-poised to enter any technological branch after learning about artificial intelligence—or before, for that matter.

Technology is growing by the day. And in a few years, Artificial Intelligence will be an integral part of our lives. Suppose you're interested in helping develop AI. In that case, there are many different ways to study and work towards becoming a data scientist. 

Use the resources we've provided above as your launching-off point for your journey toward becoming a data scientist!

Learning artificial intelligence can be tricky, especially if unfamiliar with technical jargon. But I promise it's easier than you think.

As technology continues to grow in the future, it will undoubtedly directly impact our lives. In the coming years, people will need to keep up with advancements. Fortunately, there will be plenty of options for those looking to get involved with AI.



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What is Capacity Planning?

What is Capacity Planning?

If you want to manage your tasks most efficiently, it's essential to have a clear plan for how much capacity your project requires. Capacity planning is of utmost importance if you want to implement project management on a large scale. It helps you evaluate the resources necessary for the successful completion of the project and calculate various project management metrics such as Projected Cost and Schedule, Startup Time, and the Critical Path Method.

Definition: Capacity Planning

Capacity planning is determining all the resources, activities, and costs required to complete a project. The goal of capacity planning is to ensure that the required resources for a project are available at the start of the project and throughout its life cycle.

Capacity planning should be performed when a new project starts or when an existing project needs to be modified to meet new requirements or challenges. It can also be performed at any point to determine how much work is completed and how much remains before completion.

Capacity planning is essential because it informs management about the effort required to complete projects on time and within budget. It allows managers to better allocate their resources and ensures that they have adequate financial controls to stay within budget constraints.

Types of Capacity Planning

Capacity planning is an essential step in project management as it helps determine the effort required to complete tasks or projects. The purpose of capacity planning is to identify all critical systems, personnel, equipment, and services needed by a project at various stages throughout the life cycle.

Capacity planning helps ensure that all resources are available when needed by the project team, preventing delays due to unforeseen circumstances or equipment failures. Capacity planning also ensures that the correct amount of money has been allocated for each task within a particular budget.

There are three significant types of capacity planning:

Business case analysis

This is the essential type of capacity planning because it determines whether or not a project is worthwhile and should be undertaken. In addition, it determines the resources required and prepares a plan for those resources.

Capacity planning for management

This analysis determines what skills, tools, and equipment are available within a project's organization. It also determines whether or not these resources are adequate to support the project, especially if there are unforeseen delays or problems along the way.

Capacity planning for human resources

This type of analysis determines how many people will be needed to complete a project and the skills they need to have to do so successfully. It also helps determine how much training will be required to become proficient with new technology or procedures that may be introduced during a project."

Technical Capacity Planning

This extends organizational capacity planning, where organizations identify the skills required to perform a specific task or project.

Financial Capacity Planning

This involves identifying how much money will be needed for a particular task or project so that you can plan your budget accordingly.

Benefits of Capacity Planning

Capacity plans are created using a simple formula that determines the required resources, such as employees, equipment, materials, and time spent on each task. This information is then used to calculate how many people or items will be needed for each job. For example, if you have 10 employees working on your project, you would need 1 person who can handle every task and another responsible for scheduling meetings with other team members.

There are many benefits of capacity planning in project management. Some of the significant benefits include the following:

  • It can be used for project risk assessment and risk mitigation.
  • The capacity planning results can estimate future demand, which can help reduce costs and increase profits.
  • It helps identify problem areas before they become critical by informing them about their current capacities and future needs so that they can take action to address them.
  • Capacity planning helps stakeholders to understand their specific roles in providing services or products that are required by the company or organization, thus helping them to understand their responsibilities towards it.
  • Providing an accurate estimate of costs
  • Ensuring that all tasks are completed before the deadlines
  • Identifying any potential risks associated with larger projects

When Capacity Planning is required

Capacity planning is a continuous process throughout the project life cycle. This means that it is vital that all project managers and senior management keep their staff informed of any changes in their workloads, as well as any new requirements or constraints that might affect their ability to deliver the project successfully.

The size of your team will have a significant impact on how you manage your capacity planning process. For example, suppose you have a small group. In that case, they may only be able to handle some of the work required by the project with additional resources. If this is the case, then it is likely that you will need to outsource some work or consider hiring other staff who can help support your team on this particular project.

Even with larger teams, however, there must be no bottlenecks in your delivery processes or areas where there are delays due to poor communication or mismanagement. This could lead to problems such as missed deadlines and delayed payments from clients, resulting in lost revenue and damage to reputation - both financially and publicly!

Capacity planning is a skill that we, as project managers, need to have to complete our projects ahead of the deadline and under budget. Unfortunately, we could only meet all deadlines with proper capacity planning, causing costly delays and missed opportunities.

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  • "PMI®", "PMBOK®", "PMP®", "CAPM®" and "PMI-ACP®" are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.
  • "CSM", "CST" are Registered Trade Marks of The Scrum Alliance, USA.
  • COBIT® is a trademark of ISACA® registered in the United States and other countries.
  • CBAP® and IIBA® are registered trademarks of International Institute of Business Analysis™.

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